Experimental and Numerical Study of a Low-Pressure Hydrogen Jet under the Effect of Nozzle Geometry and Pressure Ratio



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Authors Abstract
Hydrogen (H2), a potential carbon-neutral fuel, has attracted considerable attention in the automotive industry for transition toward zero-emission. Since the H2 jet dynamics play a significant role in the fuel/air mixing process of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, the current study focuses on experimental and numerical investigation of a low-pressure H2 jet to assess its mixing behavior. In the experimental campaign, high-speed z-type schlieren imaging is applied in a constant volume chamber and H2 jet characteristics (penetration and cross-sectional area) are calculated by MATLAB and Python-based image post-processing. In addition, the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is used in the commercial software Star-CCM+ for numerical simulations. The H2 jet dynamics is investigated under the effect of nozzle geometry (single-hole, double-hole, and multiple-hole (5-hole)), which constitutes the novelty of the present research, and pressure ratio (PR = injection pressure (Pi) / chamber pressure (Pch)). The results show that the H2 jet from the single-hole nozzle possesses the fastest penetration and smallest cross-sectional area. On the contrary, the H2 jet from the double-hole nozzle possesses the slowest penetration and largest cross-sectional area. The H2 jet from the multiple-hole nozzle shows characteristics between those of the single-hole and double-hole. Overall, since higher pressure ratio and larger jet cross-sectional area lead to higher uniformity of the fuel/air mixture, high-pressure injection with the double-hole nozzle seems more advantageous to attain efficient mixing.
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Yeganeh, M., Rabensteiner, S., Karimkashi, S., Cheng, Q. et al., "Experimental and Numerical Study of a Low-Pressure Hydrogen Jet under the Effect of Nozzle Geometry and Pressure Ratio," SAE Technical Paper 2023-01-0320, 2023, https://doi.org/10.4271/2023-01-0320.
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Apr 11, 2023
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Technical Paper