Correlating Port Fuel injection to Wetted Fuel Footprints on Combustion Chamber Walls and UBHC in Engine Start Processes



SAE Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference & Exhibition
Authors Abstract
Unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions from gasoline engines remain a primary engineering research and development concern due to stricter emission regulations. Gasoline engines produce more UBHC emissions during cold start and warm-up than during any other stage of operation, because of insufficient fuel-air mixing, particularly in view of the additional fuel enrichment used for early starting. Impingement of fuel droplets on the cylinder wall is a major source of UBHC and a concern for oil dilution.
This paper describes an experimental study that was carried out to investigate the distribution and “footprint” of fuel droplets impinging on the cylinder wall during the intake stroke under engine starting conditions. Injectors having different targeting and atomization characteristics were used in a 4-Valve engine with optical access to the intake port and combustion chamber. The spray and targeting performance were characterized using high-speed visualization and Phase Doppler Interferometry techniques. The fuel droplets impinging on the port, cylinder wall and piston top were characterized using a color imaging technique during simulated engine start-up from room temperature. Highly absorbent filter paper was placed around the circumference of the cylinder liner and on the piston top to collect fuel droplets during the intake strokes. A small amount of colored dye, which dissolves completely in gasoline, was used as the tracer. Color density on the paper, which is correlated with the amount of fuel deposited and its distribution on the cylinder wall, was measured using image analysis. The results show that by comparing the locations of the wetted footprints and their color intensities, the influence of fuel injection and engine conditions can be qualitatively and quantitatively examined. Fast FID measurements of UBHC were also performed on the engine for correlation to the mixture formation results.
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Kim, H., Yoon, S., Lai, M., Quelhas, S. et al., "Correlating Port Fuel injection to Wetted Fuel Footprints on Combustion Chamber Walls and UBHC in Engine Start Processes," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3240, 2003,
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Oct 27, 2003
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Technical Paper