This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
High Resolution Cloud Particle Imaging Incorporating State-of-the-Art Digital Cameras with Pulsed LED Illumination
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 15, 2023 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Super-cooled large drops present serious threats to aviation safety and as a result, the problem has been addressed by the FAA with the additional icing certification requirement. SLD clouds often consist of bi-modal drop size spectra leading to great challenges when it comes to simulating and characterizing these conditions in situ and in icing wind tunnels. Legacy instrumentation for measuring drop size distributions and liquid water content has been challenged under these conditions. In this report, a high-resolution particle imaging instrument is described; this instrument addresses the need for measuring drop size distributions and liquid water content over a wide range of drop sizes (10 to 2500 μm or larger). A high-throughput megapixel digital camera is used to record shadow images of the particles. High-quality illumination of the particle field is provided with high-power LED illumination with driving electronics designed to provide pulse durations as short as 25ns with sufficient fluence. Image processing software has been developed to enable automated setup of the instrument, image acquisition and processing, and efficient storage of the particle images. Calibration methods regarding the dependence of the depth-of-field to drop size were developed to enable sampling statistics bias corrections due to variations in the sample volume. Measurements acquired in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) are provided as an example of the measurement capabilities of the newly developed instruments.
CitationBachalo, W., Manin, J., Payne, G., Fidrich, M. et al., "High Resolution Cloud Particle Imaging Incorporating State-of-the-Art Digital Cameras with Pulsed LED Illumination," SAE Technical Paper 2023-01-1421, 2023, https://doi.org/10.4271/2023-01-1421.
- Bond , H.T. , Miller , R.D. , and Potapczuk M.G. Overview on SLD Engineering Tools Development AIAA 41st Aerospace Sci. Meeting and Exhibit 2003 Reno, Nevada
- King , M.C. , Bachalo , W.D. , Bell , D. , and King-Steen , L.E. Weber Number Tests in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel 2018 AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Atlanta, GA
- Strapp , J.W. , Oldenburg , J. , Ide , R. , Lilie , L. et al. Wind Tunnel Measurements of the Response of Hot-Wire Liquid Water Content Instruments to Large Drops J. of Atm. And Oceanic Technology 30 2003 791 806
- Knollenberg , R.G. Three New Instruments for Cloud Physics Measurements: The 2-D Spectrometer Probe, the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe and the Active Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Reprints of American Met. Society, Int'l Conf. on Cloud Physics 1976 554 561
- Baumgardner , D. , Strapp , J.W. , and Dye , J.E. Evaluation of the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe. Part II: Corrections for Coincidence and Dead-Time Losses J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 2 1985 626 632 10.1175/1520-0426(1985)002,0626:EOTFSS.2.0.CO;2
- Brenguier , J.-L. and Amodei , L. Coincidence and Dead-Time Corrections for Particle Counters. Part I: A General Mathematical Formalism J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6 1989 575 584 10.1175/1520-0426(1989)006,0575:CADTCF.2.0.CO;2
- Knollenberg , R.G. The Optical Array: An Alternative to Scattering or Extinction for Airborne Particle Size Determination J. Appl. Meteor. 9 1970 86 103
- Korolev , A.V. , Strapp , J.W. , and Isaac , G.A. Evaluation of the Accuracy of PMS Optical Array Probes J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 15 1998 708 720
- Strapp , J.W. , Albers , F. , Reuter , A. , Korolev , A.V. et al. Laboratory Measurements of the Response of a PMS OAP-2DC J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18 2001 1150 1170
- Kim , K.S. and Kim , S.S. Drop Sizing and Depth-of-Field Correction in TV Imaging Atom. And Sprays 4 1994 65 78
- Korolev , A.V. Reconstruction of Sizes of Spherical Particles from their Shadow Images. Part 1: Theoretical Considerations J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 24 2006 376 389
- Lawson , R.P. , Baker , B.A. , Schmitt , C.G. , and Jensen , T.L. An Overview of Microphysical Properties of Arctic Clouds Observed in May and July during FIRE ACE J. Geophys. Res. 106 2001 14989 15014 https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900789
- Fugal , J.P. and Shaw , R.A. Cloud Particle Size Distributions Measured with an Airborne Digital In-Line Holographic Instrument Atmos Meas. Tech. 2 2009 259 271 https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2-259-2009
- Ramelli , F. , Beck , A. , Henneberger , J. , and Lohmann , U. Using a Holographic Imager on a Tethered Balloon System for Microphysical Observations of Boundary Layer Clouds Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 13 2 2020 925 939 https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-925-2020
- Waitz , F. , Schnaiter , M. , Leisner , T. , and Järvinen , E. In situ Observation of Riming in Mixed-Phase Clouds Using the PHIPS Probe Atmos. Chem. Phys. 22 2022 7087 7103 https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-7087-2022
- Manin , J. and Bachalo , W.D. Advances in Imaging Diagnostics for Spray and Particle Research in High-Speed Flows Applied Sciences 10 4 2020 1450
- Steen , L.E. , Ide , R.F. , and Van Zante , J.F. An Assessment of the Icing Blade and the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel 8th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference 2016
- King , W.D. and Turvey , D.E. A Thermal Device for Aircraft Measurement of the Solid Water Content of Clouds J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 3 1986 356 362
- Korolev , A.V. , Strapp , J.W. , Isaac , G.A. , and Nevzorov , A.N. The Nevzorov Airborne Hot-Wire LWC–TWC Probe: Principle of Operation and Performance Characteristics J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15 1998 1495 1510
- Ratvasky , T.P. , Strapp , J.W. , and Lilie , L.E. Isokinetic Probe Total Water Content Measurements in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel with Supercooled Large Drop Conditions Aerospace Research Central 2021
- Miller , D.R. , Lynch , C.J. , and Tate , P.A.
- Wendisch , M. A Quantitative Comparison of Ground-Based FSSP and PVM Measurements Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 15 4 1998 887 900
- Isaac , G.A. , Korolev , A.V. , Strapp , J.W. , Cober , S.G. et al. Assessing the Collection Efficiency of Natural Cloud Particles Impacting the Nevzorov Total Water Content Probe AIAA 44th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit Reno, Nevada 2006 https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2006-1221
- Manin , J. , Skeen , S.A. , and Pickett , L.M. Performance Comparison of State-of-the-Art High-Speed Video Cameras for Scientific Applications Optical Engineering 57 12 2018 124105
- Kim , K.S. and Kim , S.S. Drop Sizing and Depth of Field Correction in TV Imaging Atomization and Sprays 4 1994 65 78
- Bachalo , W.D. A Method for Measuring the Size and Velocity of Spheres by Dual Beam Light Scatter Interferometry Appl. Opt. 19 1980 363 370
- Bachalo , W.D. and Houser , M.J. Phase Doppler Spray Analyzer for Simultaneous Measurements of Drop Size and Velocity Distributions Opt. Eng. 23 1984 583 590
- Bachalo , W.D. , Rudoff , R.C. , and Brena de la Rosa , A. Mass Flux Measurements of a High Number Density Spray System Using the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer AIAA 26th Aerospace Sciences Meeting Reno, Nevada 1988
- Van Zante , J. , Strapp , J.W. , Esposito , B. , Orchard , D. et al.
- Bachalo , W.D. Phase Doppler Interferometry for Efficient Cloud Drop Size Distribution, Number Density and LWC Measurements