This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Crash Test Methodology for Electric Scooters with Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Riders

Journal Article
ISSN: 2641-9637, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published March 29, 2022 by SAE International in United States
Crash Test Methodology for Electric Scooters with Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Riders
Citation: Como, S., Paradiso, M., Campbell, I., Garman, C. et al., "Crash Test Methodology for Electric Scooters with Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Riders," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 5(1):217-226, 2023,
Language: English


As micromobility devices (i.e., e-bikes, scooters, skateboards, etc.) continue to increase in popularity, there is a growing need to test these devices for varying purposes such as performance assessment, crash reconstruction, and design of new products. Although tests have been conducted across the industry for electric scooters (e-scooters), this paper describes a novel method for crash testing e-scooters with anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) “riding” them, providing new sources for data collection and research. A sled fixture was designed utilizing a pneumatic crash rail to propel the scooters with an overhead gantry used for stabilization of the ATD until release just prior to impact. The designed test series included impacts with a 5.5-inch curb at varying incidence angles, a stationary vehicle, or a standing pedestrian ATD. Test parameter permutations included changing e-scooter tire sizes, impact speeds, and rider safety equipment. One of the primary focuses of this testing was to establish a methodology which provided consistency in not only impact speed but also ATD orientation and scooter-to-obstacle contact.
Over the course of this research, 23 tests were conducted, consisting of 14 curb impacts, five vehicle impacts, and four pedestrian ATD impacts. A SLICE Micro data acquisition system was rigidly mounted on the rear deck region of the scooter and recorded accelerations in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions in addition to yaw, pitch, and roll rates at a frequency of 10 kHz. Tape switches were used as a redundant confirmation of impact speed in addition to high-speed camera views with a calibrated checkerboard for independent analyses. This paper describes the test methodology in detail, provides a summary of test observations, and discusses additional potential uses for such a test system.