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Numerical Simulation of Electric Powertrain for Examining Real-World Performance of EVs at Sub-Zero Temperatures
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on September 21, 2021 by SAE International in United States
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered to be a worthy alternative to automobiles powered by internal combustion engines to achieve the goal of sustainable transportation. For their many known advantages, Li-ion cells are considered to be the most practical energy storage solution for the purpose of EVs propulsion currently. Li-ion cells suffer from extreme power losses and significant drop in their capability to produce energy in extreme cold weather which is one of the primary reasons for EVs degraded performance in sub-zero temperatures. The present work proposes a novel approach to use numerical simulation technique to build an EV model based on BMW i3 using GT Suite at sub-zero temperatures. The model is validated against experimental data of the BMW i3 EV obtained from Argonne National Laboratory for US06, HWY and UDDS legislative drive cycles. A representative real-world drive cycle developed for Oxford, United Kingdom is used for evaluating the effect of cold temperatures on the performance of the Electric vehicle in real world conditions. This paper will present the methodology followed for modelling an electric vehicle that represents BMW i3 EV, the scheme used for modelling the battery characteristics to include the effect of temperature and the resulting State of Charge, internal resistance, efficiency, terminal current and power, energy consumption and loss characteristics at low ambient temperatures.