This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Assessment of the 50th Hybrid III Responses in Blunt Rear Impacts to the Torso
ISSN: 2641-9637, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published April 06, 2021 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Event: SAE WCX Digital Summit
Blunt impacts to the back of the torso can occur in vehicle crashes due to interaction with unrestrained occupants, or cargo in frontal crashes, or intrusion in rear crashes, for example. Six pendulum tests were conducted on the back of an instrumented 50th percentile male Hybrid III ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device) to determine kinematic and biomechanical responses. The impact locations were centered with the top of a 15-cm diameter impactor at the T1 or at T6 level of the thoracic spine. The impact speed varied from 16 to 24 km/h.
Two 24 km/h tests were conducted at the T1 level and showed repeatability of setup and ATD responses. The 16 and 24 km/h tests at T1 and T6 were compared. Results indicated greater head rotation, neck extension moments and neck shear forces at T1 level impacts. For example, lower neck extension was 2.6 times and 3.8 times greater at T1 versus T6 impacts at 16 and 24 km/h, respectively.
A 24 km/h test at T1 was also conducted with a seatback attached to the ATD torso to assess the effect of padding. ATD biomechanical responses were lower with the seatback, except for upper neck extension; head acceleration was 30 g with the seatback and 95 g without it. Head and T1 velocities were similar with or without the seatback.
The ATD responses were compared with published PMHS (Post Mortem Human Subjects) responses. ATD biomechanical responses were greater overall due to a stiffer, more durable spine. Pendulum forces were over 15 kN higher with a shorter duration than in PMHS tests. The head-to-torso rotation was similar at 24 km/h. This study demonstrates that the Hybrid III ATD is a useful tool for assessing high energy occupant loading by the seat.
CitationBuckman, J., Parenteau, C., Burnett, R., Viano, D. et al., "Assessment of the 50th Hybrid III Responses in Blunt Rear Impacts to the Torso," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 3(4):1632-1650, 2021, https://doi.org/10.4271/2021-01-0919.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
|Unnamed Dataset 2|
|Unnamed Dataset 3|
SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility
Number: V130-99EJ; Published: 2021-08-31
Number: V130-99EJ; Published: 2021-08-31
- Viano , D.C. and Parenteau , C.S. Field Accident Data Analysis of 2nd Row Children and Individual Case Review for Safety Priorities SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1851 2008 https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-1851
- Parenteau , C. and Viano , D. Update on Second-Row Children Responses in Rear and Frontal Crashes with a Focus on the Potential Effect of Stiffening Front Seat Structures SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1215 2020 https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-1215
- Parenteau , C. , Croteau , J. , and Zolock , J. The Effect of Crash Severity and Structural Intrusion on ATD Responses in Rear-End Crashes SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1224 2020 https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-1224
- Parenteau , C. , Viano , D. , Burnett , R. Second-Row Occupant Responses with and without Intrusion in Rear Sled and Crash Tests Traffic Injury Prevention
- Mertz , H.J. , Irwin , A.L. , and Prasad , P. Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values SAE Technical Paper 2016-22-0018 2016 https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-22-0018
- Le Claire , M. and Visvikis , C. The Influence of Rear Loading on the Protection of Child Car Occupants in Child Restraints. TRL Limited, United Kingdom, #332 Presented at: 17th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Washington, DC NHTSA, DOT 2001
- Vroman , R. , Gloyns , P. , and Roberts , J. 2003
- Sherwood , C.P. , Ferguson , S.A. , and Crandall , J.R. Factors Leading to Crash Fatalities to Children in Child Restraints Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med. 47 343 359 2003
- Mandell , S.P. , Kaufman , R. , Mack , C.D. , and Bulger , E.M. Describing a Problem: Rear Seatback Failure and Unsecured Cargo Prehosp Disaster Med. 25 152 157 2010
- Donde , H. , Lad , R. , Biswas , P. , Patil , P. , and Stace , G. Reduction in Time to Market of Automotive Seating System Using LS-DYNA Presented at: 7th European LS-DYNA Conference Stuttgart June 10, 2009
- Viano , D.C. and Parenteau , C.S. Effect of Cargo Loading on Occupant Injury and Seat Deformation in Motor-Vehicle Crashes Traffic Inj Prev. 15 8 835 843 2014
- Viano , D.C. , Hardy , W.N. , and King , A.I. Response of the Head, Neck and Torso to Pendulum Impacts on the Back J. Crash Prevention Injury Control 2 4 289 306 2001
- Forman , J. , Perry , B. , Henderson , K. , Gjolaj , J.P. , Heltzel , S. , Lessley , D. , Riley , P. , Salzar , R. , and Walilko , T. Blunt Impacts to the Back: Biomechanical Response for Model Development J Biomech. Sep. 18, 2015 48 12 3219 26 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.06.035
- Linder , A. , Bergman , U. , Svensson , M. , Viano , D. Evaluation of the BioRID P3 and the Hybrid III in Pendulum Impacts to the Back - A Comparison to Human Subject Test Data AAAM Conference 2000
- Bortenschlager , K. , Kramberger , D. , Barnsteiner , K. , Hartlieb , M. et al. Comparison Tests of BioRID II and RID 2 with Regard to Repeatability, Reproducibility and Sensitivity for Assessment of Car Seat Protection Potential in Rear-End Impacts SAE Technical Paper 2003-22-0021 2003 https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-22-0021
- Kim , A. , Anderson , K.F. , Berliner , J. , Bryzik , C. et al. Comparison of the Hybrid III and BioRID II Dummies in Low-Severity, Rear-Impact Sled Tests Stapp Car Crash J. 45 257 284 2001 Nov
- Prasad , P. , Kim , A. , Weerappuli , D.V.P. , Roberts , V. , and Schneider , D. Relationships Between Passenger-Car Seatback Strength and Occupant Injury Severity in Rear-End Collisions: Field and Laboratory Studies SAE Technical Paper 973343 1997 https://doi.org/10.4271/973343
- Prasad , P. , Kim , A. , et al. Biofidelity of Anthropomorphic Test Devices for Rear Impact SAE Technical Paper 973342 1997 https://doi.org/10.4271/973342
- Viano , D.C. and Parenteau , C.S. Rear-Seat Occupant Responses in NHTSA Rear Crash Tests SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1330 2018 https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1330
- NHTSA May 2007
- Parenteau , C.S. , Viano , D.C. , Hardy , W.N.
- U.S. Department of Transportation 2011 https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2011-title49-vol7/CFR-2011-title49-vol7-part572
- SAE 2014 https://www.sae.org/standards/content/j211/1_201403/
- International Standards Organization (ISO) https://www.iso.org/standard/64041.html
- SAE https://www.sae.org/standards/content/j1733_200711/
- Parenteau , C.S. , Viano , D.C. , Hardy , W.N. Biofidelity of Blunt Impacts to the Back Society of Automotive Engineers
- Foster , J.K. , Kortge , J.O. , Wolanin , M.J. Hybrid , I.I.I. A Biomechanically-Based Crash Test Dummy Paper Presented at: 21st Stapp Car Crash Conference Oct. 19-21, 1977 New Orleans, LA
- Backaitis , S.H. and Mertz , H.J. Hybrid III: The First Human-Like Crash Test Dummy 1-56091-449-1 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA 1994
- Davidsson , J. , Lovsund , P. , Ono , K. , Svensson , M.Y. , and Inami , S. A Comparison between Volunteer, BioRID P3 and Hybrid III Performance in Rear Impacts International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts Barcelona, Spain 1999
- Davidsson , J. A Comparison between Human Volunteer and 3 Types of Dummies Head/Neck/Torso Response in Rear-End Sled Impacts SAE 1999-08-0445 JSAE Autumn Conference Tokyo, Japan Oct. 1999
- Moorhouse , K. , Donnelly , B. , Kang , Y. , Bolte , J.H. et al. Biomechanical Responses of PMHS in Moderate-Speed Rear Impacts and Development of Response Targets for Evaluatig the Internal and External 56th Stapp Car Crash Conference, S Tapp Car Crash Journal 56 105 170 2012
- Viano , D.C. , Parenteau , C.S. , and Burnett , R. Influence of Belt Pretensioning on Dummy Responses in 40 km/h Rear-Impact Sled Tests Traffic Inj Prev. 13 1 65 71 2012
- Viano , D.C. , Parenteau , C.S. , and Burnett , R. Influence of Standing or Seated Pelvis on Dummy Responses in Rear Impacts Accid Anal Prev. 45 423 431 2012 Mar
- UN Regulation 17
- Mathewson , J.H. and Severy , D.M. Automobile Impact Research 28 Transactions of the National Safety Council 1954 93 101
- Severy , D.M. , Brink , H.M. , and Baird , J.D. Backrest and Head Restraint Design for Rear-End Collision Protection SAE Technical Paper 680079 1968 https://doi.org/10.4271/680079
- Faerber , E. Interaction of Car Passengers in Frontal, Side and Rear Collisions Paper Presented at: 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference 1982
- Mayrose , J. , Blatt , A. , Roberts , D.P. , Kilgallon , M.J. et al. The Effect of Unrestrained Rear-Seat Passengers on Driver Mortality J Trauma. 61 1249 1254 2006
- Mizuno , K. , Ikari , T. , Tomita , K. , and Matsuie , Y. Effectiveness of Seat Belt for Rear Seat Occupants in Frontal Crashes 20th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Lyon, France 2007 www-esv.nhtsa.dot.gov/Proceedings/20/07-0224-O.pdf
- IIHS Status Report Newsletter 54 3 March 25, 2019