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Assessment of the 50th Hybrid III Responses in Blunt Rear Impacts to the Torso
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 06, 2021 by SAE International in United States
Event: SAE WCX Digital Summit
Blunt impacts to the back of the torso can occur in vehicle crashes, due to cargo loading in frontal crashes or intrusion in rear crashes for example. Six pendulum tests were conducted on the back of an instrumented 50th Hybrid III ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device) to determine kinematic and biomechanical responses. The impact locations were centered at the top (T1) and mid-portion (T6) of the thoracic spine. The impact speed varied from 16 to 24 km/h. Two 24 km/h tests were conducted at T1 and showed repeatability of setup and ATD responses. The 16 and 24 km/h tests at T1 and T6 were compared. The results indicated greater head rotation, neck extension moments and neck shear forces at T1 impacts. For example, lower neck extension was 2.6 times and 3.8 times greater at T1 than T6 impacts at 16 and 24 km/h, respectively. A 24 km/h test at T1 was also conducted with a seatback attached to the ATD torso to assess the effect of padding. ATD biomechanical responses were lower with the seatback, except for upper neck extension; head acceleration was 94 g without and 30 g with the seatback. Head and T1 velocities were similar. The ATD responses were compared with published PMHS (Post Mortem Human Subjects) responses. ATD biomechanical responses were greater overall. Due to a stiffer, more durable spine, pendulum forces had over 15 kN higher peak values with a shorter duration. The head-to-torso rotation was more similar at 24 than 16 km/h. In summary, the test setup and ATD responses were repeatable. Pendulum forces were greater with shorter duration for the ATD. However, the kinematic responses were more aligned with the PMHS at higher speeds, suggesting that the Hybrid III is a useful tool for higher energy blunt impacts to the back of the torso.