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Market Fuel Effects on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Journal Article
ISSN: 2641-9637, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published April 06, 2021 by SAE International in United States
Market Fuel Effects on Low Speed Pre-Ignition
Citation: Swarts, A. and Kalaskar, V., "Market Fuel Effects on Low Speed Pre-Ignition," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 3(5):2473-2483, 2021,
Language: English


Low-Speed Pre-ignition (LSPI) is an undesirable abnormal combustion phenomenon observed in turbocharged, direct-injection spark-ignition engines and is characterized by early heat release, high cylinder pressures and severe, potentially damaging knock. LSPI has been studied for more than a decade and engine design, operating conditions and fuel and engine oil formulations have all been identified as contributing factors. A significant focus on engine oil has led to the establishment of the Sequence IX engine test and the second-generation of GM dexos® oil requirements, as well as a convergence of engine oil detergent causality. Conclusions about the effects of fuel on LSPI have been more varied, but as part of a recently completed research consortium, the LSPI tendency of market fuels with a range of properties, including composition, boiling point distribution, ethanol content and particulate matter index (PMI) were evaluated. Tests were performed in a 2-liter GM LHU engine and each test comprised of at least 24 repeats of a high-load, low-speed, steady-state test segment, with engine boundary conditions and calibration adjusted to amplify LSPI. All market fuel tests were bracketed by baseline tests and severity adjustments were made to account for changes in engine condition. It was found that the PMI and certain boiling points correlated the best with the frequency of LSPI events. In addition, decreased LSPI severity, quantified by the peak-to-peak knock values, was found to correspond with increased octane numbers and higher ethanol content of the market fuels.