This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Factors Influencing the Formation of Soft Particles in Biodiesel
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 27, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
In order to mitigate the effect of fossil fuels on global warming, biodiesel is used as drop in fuel. However, in the mixture of biodiesel and diesel, soft particles may form. These soft particles are organic compounds, which can originate from the production and degradation of biodiesel. Further when fuel is mixed with unwanted contaminants such as engine oil the amount soft particles can increase. The presence of these particles can cause malfunction in the fuel system of the engine, such as nozzle fouling, internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) or fuel filter plugging. Soft particles and the mechanism of their formation is curtail to understand in order to study and prevent their effects on the fuel system. This paper focuses on one type of soft particles, which are metal soaps. More precisely on the role of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) during their formation. In order to do so, aged and unaged B10 was studied. The fuel matrixes were mixed with a calcium source such as calcium oxide (CaO), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and engine oil. The importance of SCFA was studied by influencing the presence of the acids, by degrading the fuel, by the addition of formic acid and by inert gas bubbling. The created deposits and fuels mixtures were examined with the use of pH measurements, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Opposed to the expectations, the results indicate that SFCA in not the most important factor for the formation of soft particles. It is shown that the calcium sources influenced the consistency and amount of the created soft particles. From the tested contaminants, CaO showed the highest yield towards precipitates. While degradation of the fuels showed to be the most important factor to form soap type soft particles.
CitationCsontos, B., Fiorenza, R., Pach, M., Hittig, H. et al., "Factors Influencing the Formation of Soft Particles in Biodiesel," SAE Technical Paper 2020-24-0006, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-24-0006.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- Pérez Henríquez, B.L. , Energy Sources for Sustainable Transportation and Urban Development (Elsevier Inc., 2020), doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-815167-9.00015-3.
- Schiller, T., Maier, M., and Büchle, M. , “Global Truck Study 2016 the Truck Industry in Transition,” 2016.
- Heid, B., Diedrich, D., Kässer, M., Küchler, S. et al. , “Route 2030 - The Fast Track to the Future of the Commercial Vehicle Industry,” 2018.
- Huo, H., Wang, M., Bloyd, C., and Putsche, V. , “Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(3):750-756, 2009, doi:10.1021/es8011436.
- Lacey, P., Gail, S., Kientz, J.M., Milovanovic, N. et al. , “Internal Fuel Injector Deposits,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(1):132-145, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1925.
- Barker, J., Richard, P., Snape, C., and Meredith, W. , “Diesel Injector Deposits - An Issue That Has Evolved with Engine Technology,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1923, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1923.
- Wilfong, D., Dallas, A., Yang, C., Johnson, P. et al. , “Emerging Challenges of Filtration,” Filtr. Solut. 10(2):105-115, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.03.087.
- Block, J., Klick, P., Grove, B., Zastera, D. et al. , Contaminants Found on Diesel Fuel Storage Tank Filters (Florida: Sarasota, 2011).
- Risberg, P.A., Alfredsson, S., and Ab, S.C.V. , “The Effect of Zinc and Other Metal Carboxylates on Nozzle Fouling,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0837, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0837.
- Zhao, J., Grekhov, L., and Yue, P. , “Limit of Fuel Injection Rate in the Common Rail System under Ultra-High Pressures,” J. Autom. Technol 21(3):649-656, 2020, doi:10.1007/s12239-020-0062-3.
- Agarwal, A.K., Dhar, A., Gupta, J.G., Kim, W.I. et al. , “Effect of Fuel Injection Pressure and Injection Timing on Spray Characteristics and Particulate Size-Number Distribution in a Biodiesel Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel Engine,” Appl. Energy 130:212-221, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.05.041.
- Bernemyr, H., Csontos, B., Hittig, H., and Forsberg, O. , “Study of Nozzle Fouling: Deposit Build-Up and Removal,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-2231, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-2231.
- Omori, T., Tanaka, A., Yamada, K., and Bunne, S. , “Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Injection System and Establishment of the Evaluation Method,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-28-0057, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-28-0057.
- Ullmann, J., Geduldig, M., Stutzenberger, H., Caprotti, R. et al. , “Investigation into the Formation and Prevention of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0926, 2008, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-0926.
- Csontos, B., Bernemyr, H., Erlandsson, A.C., Forsberg, O. et al. , “Characterization of Deposits Collected from Plugged Fuel Filters,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-24-0140, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0140.
- Waynick, J.A. , “Characterization of Biodiesel Oxidation and Oxidation Products,” 2005.
- Giakoumis, E.G. , “A Statistical Investigation of Biodiesel Physical and Chemical Properties, and Their Correlation with the Degree of Unsaturation,” Renew. Energy 50:858-878, 2013, doi:10.1016/j.renene.2012.07.040.
- Prankl, H. and Schindlbauer, H. , “Oxidation Stability of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters,” in 10th European Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry, 1998, doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.
- Kinast, J.A. , “Production of Biodiesels from Multiple Feedstocks and Properties of Biodiesels and Biodiesel/Diesel Blends.,” 2003.
- Westbrook, S.R. , “Evaluation and Comparison of Test Methods to Measure the Oxidation Stability of Neat Biodiesel,” 2005.
- Knothe, G. , “Some Aspects of Biodiesel Oxidative Stability,” Fuel Process. Technol. 88(7):669-677, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2007.01.005.
- Zuleta, E.C., Baena, L., Rios, L.A., and Calderón, J.A. , “The Oxidative Stability of Biodiesel and Its Impact on the Deterioration of Metallic and Polymeric Materials: A Review,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 23(12):2159-2175, 2012, doi:10.1590/S0103-50532012001200004.
- Bacha, K., Ben-Amara, A., Vannier, A., Alves-Fortunato, M. et al. , “Oxidation Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Fuels Measured by a Petrooxy Device and Characterization of Oxidation Products,” Energy and Fuels 29(7):4345-4355, 2015, doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00450.
- Fang, H.L., and Mccormick, R.L. , “Spectroscopic Study of Biodiesel Degradation Pathways,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3300, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-3300.
- Moser, B.R. , “Comparative Oxidative Stability of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters by Accelerated Methods,” JAOCS, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc 86(7):699-706, 2009, doi:10.1007/s11746-009-1376-5.
- Wexler, H. , “Polymerization of Drying Oils,” Chem. Rev. 64(6):591-611, 1964, doi:10.1021/cr60232a001.
- Monyem, A., Canakci, M., and Van Gerpen, J.H. , “Investigation of Biodiesel Thermal Stability under Simulated In-Use Conditions,” Appl. Eng. Agric. 16(4):373-378, 2000.
- Csontos, B., Alim, R., Bernemyr, H., Hittig, H. et al. , “Contaminants Affecting the Formation of Soft Particles in Bio-Based Diesel Fuels during Degradation,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0016, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0016.
- Sugiyama, G., Maeda, A., and Nagai, K. , “Oxidation Degradation and Acid Generation in Diesel Fuel Containing 5% Fame,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2027 1243-1253, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-2027.
- Tsuchiya, T., Shiotani, H., Goto, S., Sugiyama, G. et al. , “Japanese Standards for Diesel Fuel Containing 5% Fame: Investigation of Acid Generation in Fame Blended Diesel Fuels and Its Impact on Corrosion,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3303 776-790, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-3303.
- Csontos, B., Swarga, S., Bernemyr, H., Pach, M. et al. , “Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles in Drop-In Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0344, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0344.
- Osawa, M., Ebinuma, Y., Sasaki, S., Takashiba, T. et al. , “Influence of Base Diesel Fuel upon Biodiesel Sludge Formation Tendency,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2(1):127-138, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-0482.
- Csontos, B., Bernemyr, H., Erlandsson, A.C., Pach, M. et al. , Design of a Multi-Purpose Fuel Filter System to Better Understand the Challenges of Biodiesel Filtration (Cologne: FILTECH, 2019).
- Reid, J., and Barker, J. , “Understanding Polyisobutylene Succinimides (PIBSI) and Internal Diesel Injector Deposits,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2682, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-2682.