This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Experimental Evaluation and Modeling of Waste Heat Recovery in VECTO
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Waste heat recovery based on an Organic Rankine Cycle is a technology proposed for the reduction of the fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles. This technology is currently not simulated by VECTO, the tool used in Europe to certify the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of new heavy-duty vehicles. In this work, a class 5 lorry equipped with a prototype Organic Rankine Cycle system is tested on the chassis dyno during steady state and transient driving cycles, with the waste heat recovery enabled and disabled. The waste heat recovery system enabled a brake specific fuel consumption reduction of 3.1% over the World Harmonized Vehicle Cycle, 2.5% during the official EU Regional Delivery Cycle, and up to 6.5% at certain engine operating points during the fuel consumption mapping cycle. A model of the vehicle was created in VECTO based on the experimental data. The fuel consumption map of the engine with and without the Organic Rankine Cycle was derived from the steady-state experiments. Multiple modelling approaches to simulate the vehicle fuel consumption with waste heat recovery were evaluated. Comparing the simulation results with the experimental data, showed that VECTO was able to predict the fuel consumption with an error of 0.34% for the regional delivery cycle. Finally, the model was used to predict the fuel consumption reduction with waste heat recovery for all regulatory driving cycles in VECTO.
CitationBroekaert, S., Grigoratos, T., and Fontaras, G., "Experimental Evaluation and Modeling of Waste Heat Recovery in VECTO," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1287, 2020.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 8]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 9]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 10]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 11]|
- European Commission , “A 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies,” Green Paper, 2013.
- European Environment Agency , “Annual European Union Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2017 and Inventory Report 2019,” EEA/PUBL/2019/051, 2019.
- Regulation (EC) No. 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 Setting Emission Performance Standards for New Passenger Cars as part of the Community’s Integrated Approach to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles, 2009.
- Regulation (EU) No. 510/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2011 Setting Emission Performance Standards for New Light Commercial Vehicles as Part of the Union’s Integrated Approach to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles, 2011.
- Regulation (EU) 2019/631 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 Setting CO2 Emission Performance Standards for New Passenger Cars and for New Light Commercial Vehicles, and Repealing Regulations (EC) No. 443/2009 and (EU) No. 510/2011, 2019.
- Regulation (EU) 2019/1242 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 Setting CO2 Emission Performance Standards for New Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Amending Regulations (EC) No. 595/2009 and (EU) 2018/956 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Council Directive 96/53/EC, 2019.
- US Environmental Protection Agency , “2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards,” 2012.
- US Environmental Protection Agency , “Final Rule for Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles - Phase 2,” 2016.
- Ministry of Industry and Information Technology , “Phase II, MIIT National Standard Fuel Consumption Limits for Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles,” 2014.
- Aghaali, H. and Ångström, H.-E. , “A Review of Turbo-Compounding as a Waste Heat Recovery System for Internal Combustion Engines,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 49:813-824, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.144.
- Kant, M., Romagnoli, A., Mamat, A.M., and Martinez-Botas, R.F. , “Heavy-Duty Engine Electric Turbocompounding,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 229(4):457-472, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407014547237.
- Risseh, A., Nee, H., Erlandsson, O., Brinkfeldt, K. et al. , “Design of a Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery Application on a Drivable Heavy Duty Vehicle,” SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 10(1):26-44, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-9178.
- Lecompte, S., Huisseune, H., van den Broek, M., Vanslambrouck, B., and De Paepe, M. , “Review of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Architectures for Waste Heat Recovery,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 47:448-461, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.089.
- Lion, S., Michos, C.N., Vlaskos, I., Rouaud, C. et al. , “A Review of Waste Heat Recovery and Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) in On-Off Highway Vehicle Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 79:691-708, 2017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.082.
- Xu, B., Rathod, D., Yebi, A., Filipi, Z. et al. , “A Comprehensive Review of Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery Systems in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 107:145-170, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.03.012.
- Delgado, O. and Lutsey, N. , “The US SuperTruck Program: Expediting the Development of Advanced Heavy-Duty Vehicle Efficiency Technologies,” White Paper, 2014.
- Kocher, L. , “Enabling Technologies for Heavy-Duty Vehicles - Cummins 55BTE,” Technical Report, 2018.
- Bettoja, F., Perosino, A., Lemort, V., Guillaume, L. et al. , “NoWaste: Waste Heat Re-Use for Greener Truck,” Transportation Research Procedia 14:2734-2743, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.456.
- Di Battista, D. and Cipollone, R. , “Experimental Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle Plant Bottoming a Heavy-Duty Engine Using Axial Turbine as Prime Mover,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(4):1385-1397, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-9279.
- Cipollone, R., Di Battista, D., and Bettoja, F. , “Performances of an ORC Power Unit for Waste Heat Recovery on Heavy Duty Engine,” Energy Procedia 129:770-777, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.132.
- Schmiederer, K., Eitel, J., and Edwards, S. , “The Potential Fuel Consumption of a Truck Engine Plus Rankine Cycle System, Derived from Performance Measurements over Steady State and Transient Test Cycles at Constant Emissions Levels,” in 33. Int. Wiener Motorensymposium, Austria, vol. 1, 351-378, 2012.
- Grelet, V., Reiche, T., Lemort, V., Nadri, M. et al. , “Transient Performance Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery Rankine Cycle Based System for Heavy Duty Trucks,” Applied Energy 165:878-892, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.004.
- Glensvig, M., Schreier, H., Tizianel, M., Theissl, H. et al. , “Testing of a Long Haul Demonstrator Vehicle with a Waste Heat Recovery System on Public Road,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-8057, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-8057.
- Regulation (EU) 2017/2400 of 12 December 2017 Implementing Regulation (EC) No. 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as Regards the Determination of the CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EU) No. 582/2011, 2017.
- Fontaras, G., Rexeis, M., Dilara, P., Hausberger, S. et al. , “The Development of a Simulation Tool for Monitoring Heavy-Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption in Europe,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0150, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-24-0150.
- Fontaras, G., Grigoratos, T., Savvidis, D., Anagnostopoulos, K. et al. , “An Experimental Evaluation of the Methodology Proposed for the Monitoring and Certification of CO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Vehicles in Europe,” Energy 2012:354-364, 2016, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.02.076.
- Zacharof, N. and Fontaras, G. , “Report on VECTO Technology Simulation Capabilities and Future Outlook,” EUR 28272 EN, 2016, https://doi.org/10.2790/10868.
- European Commission , “VECTO User Manual,” 2019.
- United Nations , “GTR No. 4 - Test Procedure for Compression Ignition (C.I.) Engines and Positive Ignition (P.I.) Engines Fuelled with Natural Gas (NG) or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) with Regard to the Emission of Pollutants,” 2015.
- Commission Regulation (EU) 2019/318 of 19 February 2019 Amending Regulation (EU) 2017/2400 and Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as Regards the Determination of the CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles, 2019.