Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines
To be published on September 9, 2019 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles. In this framework, a comprehensive approach covering the whole powertrain is of primary importance in order to simultaneously meet the performance, efficiency, noise and emission targets and, therefore, further development of the combustion system design and injection system represent important leverage for additional improvements. For this purpose, a dedicated 0.5 litres single-cylinder engine has been developed and equipped with, a state-of-the-art Euro 6 combustion system and, an advanced common rail injection system offering higher flexibility in terms of injection strategy and higher quantity accuracy. Three injector nozzles with different hydraulic flow rates (HF) have been selected and employed for the overall combustion process optimization. The optimization has been performed by means of an extensive DoE-based test campaign in which the engine and FIS operating parameters have been parametrized with the aim to carry out a proper combination in terms of HF and injection strategy. The results at partial load conditions evidence significant advantages in applying an advanced injection pattern, while the HF reduction can significantly improve the smoke emission and combustion noise. Therefore, a proper combination and optimization of the HF can provide low noise and engine-out pollutant emission while maintaining the rated power performance targets.