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Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of a Scallop Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing
- Christopher Lum - University of Washington ,
- Michael Bragg - University of Washington ,
- Timothy Smith - Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center ,
- Andy Broeren - NASA Glenn Research Center ,
- Mark Potapczuk - NASA Glenn Research Center ,
- Sam Lee - Vantage Partners Limited ,
- Brian Woodard - University of Illinois
ISSN: 2641-9637, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published June 10, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Woodard, B., Broeren, A., Potapczuk, M., Lee, S. et al., "Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of a Scallop Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 2(1):151-174, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1984.
Understanding the aerodynamic impact of swept-wing ice accretions is a crucial component of the design of modern aircraft. Computer-simulation tools are commonly used to approximate ice shapes, so the necessary level of detail or fidelity of those simulated ice shapes must be understood relative to high-fidelity representations of the ice. Previous tests were performed in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel to acquire high-fidelity ice shapes. From this database, full-span artificial ice shapes were designed and manufactured for both an 8.9%-scale and 13.3%-scale semispan wing model of the CRM65 which has been established as the full-scale baseline for this swept-wing project. These models were tested in the Walter H. Beech wind tunnel at Wichita State University and at the ONERA F1 facility, respectively. The data collected in the Wichita St. University wind tunnel provided a low-Reynolds number baseline study while the pressurized F1 facility produced data over a wide range of Reynolds and Mach numbers with the highest Reynolds number studied being approximately Re = 11.9×106. Past work focused on only three different fidelity variations for ice shapes based on multiple icing conditions. This work presents a more detailed investigation into several fidelity representations of a single highly three-dimensional scallop ice accretion. Sensitivity to roughness size and application technique on a low-fidelity smooth ice shape is described. The data indicate that the aerodynamic performance is not especially sensitive to the grit variations. An ice accretion code was also used to generate ice shapes for aerodynamic testing and comparisons. These ice shapes have a general appearance like the low-fidelity smooth ice shapes, but in this case, the computer-generated ice shape is significantly smaller. As such, the impact of that ice shape on the aerodynamic performance of the wing is reduced compared to the smooth ice shape based on the icing experiment for those same conditions. Spanwise discontinuities were also introduced to a low-fidelity ice shape in an attempt to quantify the impact of those variation in the high-fidelity ice shape. While the lift data indicate good agreement between the high-fidelity ice shapes and the low-fidelity ice shapes with spanwise discontinuities, a closer investigation of the data suggests potential, significant differences in the flowfield. These results were similar at both facilities over the wide range of test conditions utilized.