This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
ICICLE: A Model for Glaciated & Mixed Phase Icing for Application to Aircraft Engines
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 10, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
High altitude ice crystals can pose a threat to aircraft engine compression and combustion systems. Cases of engine damage, surge and rollback have been recorded in recent years, believed due to ice crystals partially melting and accreting on static surfaces (stators, endwalls and ducting). The increased awareness and understanding of this phenomenon has resulted in the extension of icing certification requirements to include glaciated and mixed phase conditions. Developing semi-empirical models is a cost effective way of enabling certification, and providing simple design rules for next generation engines. A comprehensive ice crystal icing model is presented in this paper, the Ice Crystal Icing ComputationaL Environment (ICICLE). It is modular in design, comprising a baseline code consisting of an axisymmetric or 2D planar flowfield solution, Lagrangian particle tracking, air-particle heat transfer and phase change, and surface interactions (bouncing, fragmentation, sticking). In addition, an efficient particle tracking method has been developed into the code, which employs the representative particle size distribution at each injection location and a deterministic particle sticking method by using an in-situ particle based scaling factor without aborting the particle trajectories. Various time integration algorithms, including implicit and explicit Euler and Runge-Kutta methods, are discussed and the effect on an acceptable timestep investigated. The model then improves on those available in the literature in three ways: firstly, an adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) to mixed phase conditions is incorporated, improving the fidelity of the ice accretion prediction compared with the classical Messinger model. Secondly, an experimentally-derived model for sticking efficiency improves the accuracy of the continuity equation in the EMM; thirdly a simple model for integrating two-way coupling of mass and energy is proposed.
CitationBucknell, A., McGilvray, M., Gillespie, D., Yang, X. et al., "ICICLE: A Model for Glaciated & Mixed Phase Icing for Application to Aircraft Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1969, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1969.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
- Mason, J.G., Strapp, J.W., and Chow, P. , “The Ice Particle Threat to Engines in Flight,” in presented at the 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 2006.
- Mazzawy, R.S. , “Modeling of Accretion and Shedding in Turbofan Engines with Mixed Phase/Glaciated (Ice Crystals) Conditions,” in presented at the SAE Aircraft and Engine International Icing Conference, Seville, Spain, 2007.
- Wright, W.B., Jorgenson, P.C.E., and Veres, J.P. , “Mixed Phase Modeling in GlennICE with Application to Engine Icing,” in presented at the AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2010.
- Nilamdeen, S. and Habashi, W. , “Multiphase Approach toward Simulating Ice Crystal Ingestion in Jet Engines,” AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power 27(5), Sep. 2011.
- Villedieu, P., Trontin, P., and Chauvin, R. , “Glaciated and Mixed-Phase Ice Accretion Modeling Using ONERA 2D Icing Suite,” in presented at the 6th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, Atlanta, GA, 2014.
- Trontin, P., Blanchard, G., and Villedieu, P. , “A Comprehensive Numerical Model for Mixed Phase and Glaciated Icing Conditions,” in presented at the 8th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, Washington, D.C., USA, 2016.
- Messinger, B.L. , “Equilibrium Temperature of an Unheated Icing Surface as a Function of Air Speed,” J. Aeronaut. Sci 120(1):29-42, Jan. 1953.
- Myers, T.G. , “Extension to the Messinger Model for Aircraft Icing,” AIAA J. 39(2):211-218, Feb. 2001.
- Struk, P.M., Currie, T., Wright, W., Knezevici, D. et al. , “Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-38-0018, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-38-0018.
- Currie, T., Fuleki, D., and Mahallati, A. , “Experimental Studies of Mixed-Phase and Sticking Efficiency for Ice Crystal Accretion in Jet and Engines,” in presented at the 6th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, Atlanta, GA, 2014.
- Al-Khalil, K., Irani, E., and Miller, D. , “Mixed-Phase Icing Simulation and Testing at the Cox Icing Wind Tunnel,” in presented at the 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 2003.
- Grift, E.J., Norde, E., Van der Weide, E., and Hoeijmakers, H. , “Computational Method for Ice Crystal Trajectories in a Turbofan Compressor,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2139, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2139.
- Iuliano, E., Montreuil, E., Norde, E., Van der Weide, E. et al. , “Modelling of Non-Spherical Particle Evolution for Ice Crystals Simulation with an Eulerian Approach,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2138, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2138.
- Mason, B.J. , “On the Melting of Hailstones,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meterological Society 82:209-216, 1956.
- Gent, R.W., Dart, N.P., and Cansdale, J.T. , “Aircraft Icing,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond 358:2873-2911, 2000.
- Wright, W.B., Gent, R.W., and Guffond, D. , “DRA/NASA/ONERA Collaboration on Icing Research. Part 2; Prediction of Airfoil Ice Accretion,” NASA-CR-202349, May 1997.
- Connolly, J.P., Bucknell, A., McGilvray, M., Gillespie, D.R.H., Collier, B., and Jones, G. , “Two-Way Flow Coupling in Ice Crystal Icing Simulation,” in presented at the International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, Minneapolis, MN, 2019.
- Rosin, P. and Rammler, E. , “The Laws Governing the Fineness of Powdered Coal,” Journal of the Institute of Fuel 7:29-36, 1933.
- Leroy, D. et al. , “Ice Crystal Sizes in High Ice Water Content Clouds. Part II: Statistics of Mass Diameter Percentiles in Tropical Convection Observed during the HAIC/HIWC Project,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 34:117-136, Jan. 2017.
- Aouizerate G. et al. , “Ice Crystals Trajectory Calculations in a Turbofan Engine,” in presented at the 2018 Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2018.
- Wadell, H. , “Volume, Shape and Roundness of Quartz Particles,” The Journal of Geology 43(3):250-280, 1935.
- Leith, D. , “Drag on Nonspherical Objects,” Aerosol Science and Technology 6(2):153-161, 1987.
- Holzer, A. and Sommerfeld, M. , “New Simple Correlation Formula for the Drag Coefficient of Non-spherical Particles,” Powder Technology 184:361-365, 2008.
- Trontin, P., Blanchard, G., Kontogiannis, A., and Villedieu, P. , “Description and Assessment of the New ONERA 2D Icing Suite IGLOO2D,” in presented at the 9th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, Denver, CO, USA.
- Guha, A. , “Transport and Deposition of Particles in Turbulent and Laminar Flow,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 40:311-341, Jan. 2008.
- Young, J. and Leeming, A. , “A Theory of Particle Deposition in Turbulent Pipe Flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 340:129-159, 1997.
- Clift, R. and Gauvin, W.H. , “The Motion of Particles in Turbulent Gas Streams,” Proceedings Chemeca 1:14-24, 1970.
- Chrust, M., Bouchet, G., and Dusek, J. , “Parametric Study of the Transition in the Wake of Oblate Spheroids and Flat Cylinders,” J. Fluid Mech. 665:199-208, 2010.
- Haider, A. and Levenspiel, O. , “Drag Coefficient and Terminal Velocity of Spherical and Nonspherical Particles,” 1989.
- Ganser, G.H. , “A Rational Approach to Drag Prediction of Spherical and Nonspherical Particles,” 1993.
- Rasmussen, R. and Pruppacher, H.R. , “A Wind Tunnel and Theoretical Study of the Melting Behavior of Atmospheric Ice Particles. I: A Wind Tunnel Study of Frozen Drops of Radius < 500 μm,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 39:152-158, 1982.
- Hyland, R.W. and Wexler, A. , “Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of Dry Air from 173.15 K to 473.15 K, and of Saturated Moist Air from 173.15 K to 372.15 K, at Pressures to 5 MPa,” ASHRAE Transactions, 1983.
- Hauk, T., Bonaccurso, E., Villedieu, P., and Trontin, P. , “Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Melting Process of Ice Particles,” Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer 30(4):946-954, 2016.
- Chung S. , “Survey of Literature on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients and Recovery Factors,” NASA-CR-138747, Jul. 1973.
- Crowe, C.T., Schwarzkopf, J.D., Sommerfeld, M., and Tsuji, Y. , Multiphase Flows with Droplets and Particles Second Edition (2011).
- Califf, C. and Knezevici, D. , “Use of a Turbofan Engine to Measure Ice Crystal Cloud Concentration in-Flight,” in presented at the 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Cleveland, OH, USA, 2014.
- AGARD , “Recommended Practices for the Assessment of the Effects of Atmospheric Water Ingestion on the Performance and Operability of Gas Turbine Engines,” 1995.
- Bartkus, T., Struk, P.M., and Tsao, J. , “Development of a Coupled Air and Particle Thermal Model for Engine Icing Test Facilities,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 8(1):15-32, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2155.
- Veres, J.P., Jorgenson, P.C.E., Jones, S.M., and Nili, S. , “Modeling of a Turbofan Engine with Ice Crystal Ingestion in the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory,” in presented at the ASME Turbo Expo 2017: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, Charlotte, NC, USA, 2017.
- Bucknell, A., McGilvray, M., Gillespie, D.R.H., Jones, G., Reed, A., and Collier, B. , “Experimental Studies of Ice Crystal Accretion on an Axisymmetric Body at Engine-Realistic Conditions,” in presented at the 2018 Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2018.
- Hauk, T., Roisman, I., and Tropea, C. , “Investigation of the Impact Behaviour of Ice Particles,” in 6th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, Atlanta, GA, 16-20 June 2014.
- Vidaurre, G. and Hallett, J. , “Particle Impact and Breakup in Aircraft Measurement,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 26(5):972-983, 2008.
- Guégan, P. et al. , “Critical Impact Velocity for Ice Fragmentation,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 228(7), 2012.
- Guégan, P. et al. , “Experimental Investigation of the Kinematics of Post-Impact Ice Fragments,” International Journal of Impact Engineering 38:786-795, 2011.
- Bucknell, A., McGilvray, M., and Gillespie, D.R.H. , “A Three-Layer Thermodynamic Model for Ice Crystal Accretion on Warm Surfaces: EMM-C,” in presented at the International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, Minneapolis, MN, 2019.
- Knezevici, D.C., Fuleki, D.M., Currie, T.C., and MacLeod, J.D. , “Particle Size Effects on Ice Crystal Accretion,” in presented at the 4th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 2012.
- McClain, S.T., Vargas, M., Tsao, J., and Broeren, P. , “Ice Roughness and Thickness Evolution on a Business Jet Airfoil,” in presented at the AIAA Aviation Forum, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2018.
- Bucknell, A. et al. , “Experimental Study and Analysis of Ice Crystal Accretion on a Gas Turbine Compressor Stator Vane,” in presented at the International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, Minneapolis, MN, 2019.
- Struk, P.M., Bartkus, T., and Tsao, J. , “A Method to Interpret Mixed-Phase Measurements Using the SEA Multi-Wire Probe in Select Icing Test Facilities,” in presented at the SAE International 2015 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, Prague, CZ, Jun-2015.
- Fuleki, D., Chalmers, J.L., and Galeote, B. , “Technique for Ice Crystal Particle Size Measurements and Results for the National Research Council of Canada Altitude Ice Crystal Test System,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2125, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2125.
- Knezevici, D.C., Fuleki, D., and MacLeod, J. , “Development and Commissioning of a Linear Compressor Cascade Rig for Ice Crystal Research,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-38-0079, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-38-0079.
- Motwani, D.G., Gaitonde, U.N., and Sukhatme, S.P. , “Heat Transfer from Rectangular Plates Inclined at Different Angles of Attack and Yaw to an Air Stream,” Journal of Heat Transfer 107:307-312, May 1985.