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Calculating Heavy-Duty Truck Energy and Fuel Consumption Using Correlation Formulas Derived From VECTO Simulations
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 2, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used in Europe for calculating standardised energy consumption and CO2 emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks (HDTs) for certification purposes. The tool requires detailed vehicle technical specifications and a series of component efficiency maps, which are difficult to retrieve for those that are outside of the manufacturing industry. In the context of quantifying HDT CO2 emissions, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission received VECTO simulation data of the 2016 vehicle fleet from the vehicle manufacturers. In previous work, this simulation data has been normalised to compensate for differences and issues in the quality of the input data used to run the simulations. This work, which is a continuation of the previous exercise, focuses on the deeper meaning of the data received to understand the factors contributing to energy and fuel consumption. Fuel efficiency distributions and energy breakdown figures were derived from the data and are presented in this work. Correlation formulas were produced to calculate the energy loss contributions of individual components and resistances (air drag, rolling resistance, axle losses, gearbox losses, etc.) over the Regional Delivery and Long Haul cycles, given a limited number of input parameters such as vehicle characteristics and average component efficiencies. Default values and meaningful ranges of variation of these parameters obtained from the data of the fleet are also reported in this work. The importance of air drag and rolling resistance losses are highlighted since these losses account for about 70% of the energy consumed downstream the engine. Finally, based on the correlation formulas to calculate the individual energy losses, a method is presented that calculates the final energy consumption and CO2 emissions for all the regulated HDTs classes and that does not rely on the use of VECTO.
- Alessandro Tansini - European Commission's Joint Research Centre
- Georgios Fontaras - European Commission's Joint Research Centre
- Biagio Ciuffo - European Commission's Joint Research Centre
- Federico Millo - Politecnico di Torino
- Iker Prado Rujas - GFT Italia S.r.l.
- Nikiforos Zacharof - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Data Sets - Support Documents
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- Regulation (EU) 2018/956, Regulation (EU) 2018/956 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 June 2018 on the monitoring and reporting of CO2 emissions from and fuel consumption of new heavy-duty vehicles (Text with EEA relevance), OJ L 173, 2018.
- Tansini, A., Zacharof, N., Prado Rujas, I., and Fontaras, G., “Analysis of VECTO Data for Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDV),” JRC112015, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2018, 88.
- Meszler, D., Delgado, O., Rodríguez, F., and Muncrief, R., “EU HDVs: Cost Effectiveness of Fuel Efficiency Technologies for Long-Haul Tractor-Trailers in the 2025-2030 Timeframe, International Council on Clean Transportation,” White Paper, International Council on Clean Transportation, 2018.
- Savvidis, D., “Presentation of Vehicle Energy consumption Calculation TOol (VECTO),” 2014.
- Rexeis, M., Quaritsch, M., Hausberger, S., Silberholz, G., Kies, A., Steven, H., Goschütz, M., and Vermeulen, R., “VECTO tool development: Completion of methodology to simulate Heavy Duty Vehicles’ fuel consumption and CO2 emissions Upgrades to the existing version of VECTO and completion of certification methodology to be incorporated into a Commission legislative proposal,” Report No. I 15/17/Rex EM-I 2013/08 1670, 157, 2017.
- ICCT, Certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of on-road heavy-duty vehicles in the European Union, 2018.
- Rexeis, M., Röck, M., and Hausberger, S., “Comparison of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Representative Heavy-Duty Vehicles in Europe,” FVT-099/17/Rex EM 16/18-6790, TU - Graz, 2018.
- Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2400, COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2017/2400 of 12 December 2017 implementing Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the determination of the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles and amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011, 2017.
- JRC and TUG, “VECTO User Manual,” European Commission, 2018.
- Zacharof, N., Tansini, A., Fontaras, G., Prado Rujas, I., and Grigoratos, T., “A Generalized Component Efficiency and Input-Data Generation Model for Creating Fleet-Representative Vehicle Simulation Cases in VECTO,” Publ, 2019.