This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions
ISSN: 2641-9637, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Joshi, A., "Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 1(2):734-761, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0314.
This review paper covers major regulatory and technology developments in 2018 pertinent to tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Europe has proposed ambitious reductions in CO2 limits for both light- and heavy-duty sectors. The challenge is compounded with changing measurement norms and a significant shift away from fuel efficient diesels in the light-duty (LD) space. Both incremental and step changes are being made to advance internal combustion. New studies show that in-use NOx emissions from diesels can be much lower than required by the Euro 6 regulation. Discussions have already started on Euro 7 regulations, and the leading regulatory concepts and proposed technical solutions are provided.
In the heavy-duty (HD) sector, the progress is outlined in improving engine and vehicle fuel efficiency through the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) SuperTruck II program and other representative studies. Common approaches among the participants include hybridization, waste heat recovery, and both open- and closed cycle incremental improvements. Emissions control focus is on evaluating pathways to achieve California’s contemplated low-NOx standards, recently also supported by the US EPA through the Cleaner Trucks Initiative. The challenge is to reduce cold start and low load emissions, requiring innovative engine and after-treatment system solutions. Leading concepts include close-coupled SCR (selective catalytic reduction), use of passive NOx adsorbers, integration of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) on DPFs (diesel particulate filters), low temperature urea or ammonia injection, dual SCR, and active and passive thermal management to raise exhaust temperatures. Work is also underway on a new low load certification cycle.
Continued advancement is made on after-treatment components. Aged three-way catalysts (TWCs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are nearing 90% conversion at 150 °C. SCR catalysts continue to improve both their low temperature conversion as well as high temperature durability. Particulate regulations in Europe, China and India are leading to widespread adoption of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs). Lean burn gasoline engines can offer significant fuel economy benefits. NOx control is a challenge, and passive SCR systems and new catalysts are proposed.