This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Hybrid URANS/LES Turbulence Modeling for Spray Simulation: A Computational Study
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Turbulence modeling for fuel spray simulation plays a prominent role in the understanding of the flow behavior in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Currently, a lot of research work is actively spent on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence modeling as a replacement option of standard Reynolds averaged approaches in the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray modeling framework, due to its capability to accurately describe flow-induced spray variability and to the lower dependence of the results on the specific turbulence model and/or modeling coefficients. The introduction of LES poses, however, additional questions related to the implementation/adaptation of spray-related turbulence sources and to the rise of conflicting numerics and grid requirements between the Lagrangian and Eulerian parts of the simulated flow. About the latter, an efficient alternative might be found in hybrid URANS/LES formulations, which are still relatively unexplored for spray modeling applications and for ICE modeling in general. In this work, we conduct a systematic analysis aimed to assess the effects of several URANS, LES and hybrid turbulence modeling formulations on the spray dynamics. The hybrid form is based on a purposely developed version of the k-g URANS closure, and the simulation campaign is focused on a standard n-dodecane evaporating spray case in a constant volume vessel configuration. The spray is modeled within the Eulerian-Lagrangian framework, with primary and secondary breakup taken into account by means of the Kelvin-Helmholtz-Rayleigh-Taylor (KHRT) model. Further, we investigate on the effects due to the Stochastic Turbulence Dispersion (STD) of parcels. Numerical experiments are carried out via the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM. The results are validated against the baseline experimental data for evaporating ECN Spray A and with previous computational findings available in literature.
CitationDi Ilio, G., Krastev, V., Piscaglia, F., and Bella, G., "Hybrid URANS/LES Turbulence Modeling for Spray Simulation: A Computational Study," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0270, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0270.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- Rutland, C.J., “Large-Eddy Simulations for Internal Combustion Engines - A Review,” International Journal of Engine Research 12(5):421-451, 2011.
- Fontanesi, S., D’Adamo, A., and Rutland, C.J., “Large-Eddy Simulation Analysis of Spark Configuration Effect on Cycle-to-Cycle Variability of Combustion and Knock,” International Journal of Engine Research 16(3):403-418, 2015.
- Truffin, K., Angelberger, C., Richard, S., and Pera, C., “Using Large-Eddy Simulation and Multivariate Analysis to Understand the Sources of Combustion Cyclic Variability in a Spark-Ignition Engine,” Combustion and Flame 162:4371-4390, 2015.
- Bharadwaj, N., Rutland, C.J., and Chang, S., “Large Eddy Simulation Modelling of Spray-Induced Turbulence Effects,” International Journal of Engine Research 10(2):97-119, 2009.
- Vuorinen, V., Hillamo, H., Kaario, O., Nuutinen, M. et al., “Effect of Droplet Size and Atomization on Spray Formation: A Priori Study Using Large-Eddy Simulation,” Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 86(3):533-561, 2011.
- Wehrfritz, A., Vuorinen, V., Kaario, O., and Larmi, M., “Large Eddy Simulation of High-Velocity Fuel Sprays: Studying Mesh Resolution and Breakup Model Effects for Spray A,” Atomization and Sprays 23(5):419-442, 2013.
- Jangi, M., Solsjo, R., Johansson, B., and Bai, X.-S., “On Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray for Internal Combustion Engines,” International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 53:68-80, 2015.
- Tsang, C.-W., Kuo, C.-W., Trujillo, M., and Rutland, C., “Evaluation and Validation of Large-Eddy Simulation Sub-Grid Spray Dispersion Models Using High-Fidelity Volume-of-Fluid Simulation Data and Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data,” International Journal of Engine Research, in press, 2018.
- Hasse, C., Sohm, V., and Durst, B., “Detached Eddy Simulation of Cyclic Large Scale Fluctuations in a Simplified Engine Setup,” International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 30:32-43, 2009.
- Buhl, S., Dietzsch, F., Buhl, C., and Hasse, C., “Comparative Study of Turbulence Models for Scale-Resolving Simulations of Internal Combustion Engine Flows,” Computers & Fluids 156:66-80, 2017.
- Buhl, S., Hain, D., Hartmann, F., and Hasse, C., “A Comparative Study of Intake and Exhaust Port Modeling Strategies for Scale-Resolving Engine Simulations,” International Journal of Engine Research 19(3):282-292, 2018.
- Piscaglia, F., Montorfano, A., and Onorati, A., “A Scale Adaptive Filtering Technique for Turbulence Modeling of Unsteady Flows in Ic Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines 8(2):426-436, 2015.
- Wu, Y., Montorfano, A., Piscaglia, F., and Onorati, A., “A Study of the Organized In-Cylinder Motion by a Dynamic Adaptive Scale-Resolving Turbulence Model,” Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 100(3):797-827, 2018.
- Hasse, C., Sohm, V., and Durst, B., “Numerical Investigation of Cyclic Variations in Gasoline Engines Using a Hybrid URANS/LES Modeling Approach,” Computers & Fluids 39:25-48, 2010.
- Krastev, V.K., Bella, G., and Campitelli, G., “Some Developments in DES Modeling for Engine Flow Simulation,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-24-2414, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-24-2414.
- Krastev, V.K. and Bella, G., “A Zonal Turbulence Modeling Approach for ICE Flow Simulation,” SAE Int. J. Engines 9(3):1425-1436, 2016.
- Krastev, V.K., Silvestri, L., Falcucci, G., and Bella, G., “A Zonal-LES Study of Steady and Reciprocating Engine-Like Flows Using a Modified Two-Equation DES Turbulence Model,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-24-0030, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-24-0030.
- Krastev, V.K., Silvestri, L., and Falcucci, G., “A Modified Version of the RNG K-ε Turbulence Model for the Scale-Resolving Simulation of Internal Combustion Engines,” Energies 10:2116, 2017.
- Piscaglia, F., Montorfano, A., and Onorati, A., “Development of a Non-Reflecting Boundary Condition for Multidimensional Nonlinear Duct Acoustic Computation,” Journal of Sound and Vibration 332(4):922-935, 2013.
- Krastev, V.K., Di Ilio, G., Falcucci, G., and Bella, G., “Notes on the Hybrid URANS/LES Turbulence Modeling for Internal Combustion Engines Simulation,” Energy Procedia 148:1098-1104, 2018.
- Spalart, P.R., “Detached-Eddy Simulation,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 41:181-202, 2009.
- Travin, A., Shur, M.L., Strelets, M., and Spalart, P.R., “Physical and Numerical Upgrades in the Detached-Eddy Simulation of Complex Turbulent Flows,” . In: Friedrich R., Rodi W., editors. Advances in LES of Complex Flows. (Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002), 239-254.
- Kalitzin, G., Gould, A.R.B., and Benton, J.J., “Application of Two-Equation Turbulence Models in Aircraft Design,” AIAA Paper 96-0327, 1996.
- Wilcox, D.C., “Reassessment of the Scale-Determining Equation for Advanced Turbulence Models,” AIAA Journal 26(11):1311-1320, 1988.
- Bella, G. and Krastev, V.K., “On the RANS Modeling of Turbulent Airflow over a Simplified Car Model, in ASME-JSME-KSME 2011 Joint Fluids Engineering Conference: Volume 1, Symposia Parts A, B, C, and D, 2011, 871-883, ASME.
- Krastev, V.K. and Bella, G., “On the Steady and Unsteady Turbulence Modeling in Ground Vehicle Aerodynamic Design and Optimization,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-24-0163, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-24-0163.
- Durbin, P.A., “On the K-ε Stagnation Point Anomaly,” International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 17:89-90, 1996.
- Durbin, P.A., “Limiters and Wall Treatments in Applied Turbulence Modeling,” Fluid Dynamics Research 41(1):012203, 2009.
- Sagaut, P., Deck, S., and Terracol, M., Multiscale and Multiresolution Approaches in Turbulence - LES, DES and Hybrid RANS/LES Methods: Applications and Guidelines (Imperial College Press, 2013).
- Deck, S., “Zonal-Detached-Eddy Simulation of the Flow around a High-Lift Configuration,” AIAA Journal 43(11):2372-2384, 2005.
- Deck, S., “Recent Improvements in the Zonal Detached Eddy Simulation (ZDES) Formulation,” Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 26(6):523-550, 2012.
- Deck, S., Gand, F., Brunet, V., and Khelil, S.B., “High-Fidelity Simulations of Unsteady Civil Aircraft Aerodynamics: Stakes and Perspectives. Application of Zonal Detached Eddy Simulation,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 372, 2014.
- El Tahry, S.H., “K-ε Equation for Compressible Reciprocating Engine Flows,” J. Energy 7(4):345-353, 1983.
- Shih, T.-H., Liou, W.W., Shabbir, A., Yang, Z. et al., “A New K-E Eddy Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows,” Computers & Fluids 24(3):227-238, 1995.
- Han, Z. and Reitz, R.D., “Turbulence Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines Using RNG K-ε Models,” Combust. Sci. and Tech. 106:267-295, 1995.
- Smagorinsky, J., “General Circulation Experiments with the Primitive equaTions: I. The Basic Experiment,” Mon. Weather Rev. 91(3):99-164, 1963.
- Nicoud, F. and Ducros, F., “Subgrid-Scale Stress Modelling Based on the Square of the Velocity Gradient Tensor,” Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 62(3):183-200, 1999.
- O’Rourke, P.J., “Statistical Properties and Numerical Implementation of a Model for Droplet Dispersion in a Turbulent Gas,” Journal of Computational Physics 83:345-360, 1989.
- Amsden, A.A., O’Rourke, P.J., and Butler, T.D., “KIVA-II: A Computer Program for Chemically Reactive Flows with Sprays, Los Alamos National Laboratory, LA-11560-MS, 1989.
- Reitz, R.D., “Modeling Atomization Processes in High-Pressure Vaporizing Sprays,” Atomization and Spray Technology 3:309-337, 1987.
- Beale, J.C. and Reitz, R.D., “Modeling Spray Atomization with the Kelvin-Helmholtz / Rayleigh-Taylor Hybrid Model,” Atomization and Sprays 9:623-650, 1999.
- Patterson, M.A. and Reitz, R.D., “Modeling the Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission,” SAE Technical Paper 980131, 1998, doi:10.4271/980131.
- Xin, J., Ricart, L., and Reitz, R.D., “Computer Modeling of Diesel Spray Atomization and Combustion,” Combustion Science and Technology 137:171-176, 1998.
- Spalding, D.B., “The Combustion of Liquid Fuels,” Symposium (International) on Combustion 4:847864, 1953.
- Zuo, B., Gomes, A.M., and Rutland, C.J., “Studies of Superheated Fuel Spray Structures and Vaporization in GDI Engines,” International Journal of Engine Research 1:321-336, 2000.
- Pickett, L.M., Manin, J., Genzale, C.L., Siebers, D.L. et al., “Relationship between Diesel Fuel Spray Vapor Penetration/Dispersion and Local Fuel Mixture Fraction,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):764-799, 2011.