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Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

Journal Article
ISSN: 2641-9645, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR
Citation: Kargul, J., Stuhldreher, M., Barba, D., Schenk, C. et al., "Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 1(2):601-638, 2019,
Language: English


As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels. The design and performance of this 2018 2.5-liter engine is described and compared to Toyota’s published data and to EPA’s previous projections of the efficiency of an Atkinson Cycle engine with cEGR. The Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) map for the Toyota A25A-FKS engine shows a peak efficiency near 40 percent, which is the highest value of any publicly available map for a non-hybrid production gasoline internal combustion (IC) engine designed to run on 91 RON fuel. Further improvement is possible by application of fixed discrete or full continuous cylinder deactivation, both of which are currently in production on other engines.