This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Investigation of Flow Conditions and Tumble near the Spark Plug in a DI Optical Engine at Ignition
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Tumble motion plays a significant role in modern spark-ignition engines in that it promotes mixing of air/fuel for homogeneous combustion and increases the flame propagation speed for higher thermal efficiency and lower combustion variability. Cycle-by-cycle variations in the flow near the spark plug introduce variability to the initial flame kernel development, stretching, and convection, and this variability is carried over to the entire combustion process. The design of current direct-injection spark-ignition engines aims to have a tumble flow in the vicinity of the spark plug at the time of ignition. This work investigates how the flow condition changes in the vicinity of the spark plug throughout the late compression stroke via high-speed imaging of a long ignition discharge arc channel and its stretching, and via flow field measurement by particle imaging velocimetry. It is observed that the flow motion near the spark plug varies significantly cycle to cycle and can change direction from the bulk tumble flow near the time of ignition, especially when the ignition timing is late in the cycle at low tumble conditions. At a higher tumble, the bulk flow motion is maintained past the early ignition timing; and at late ignition timing, only few cycles show changed flow direction near the spark plug with much lower probability than low tumble conditions. Analysis indicates that at low tumble conditions, the mean horizontal velocity near the spark plug changes from 3.93 m/s pointing to the exhaust side at 60°BTDC to 3.05 m/s pointing to the intake side at 20°BTDC at 1000 rpm; however it is well maintained at 10.63 m/s in average from 60°BTDC to 30°BTDC pointing to the exhaust side and the mean value decreases to 7.27 m/s at 20°BTDC with the maintained flow direction at high tumble conditions. Initial flame kernel convection and propagation were also investigated at the two studied tumble levels.
- Yanyu Wang - Michigan Technological University
- Jiongxun Zhang - Michigan Technological University
- Zhuyong Yang - Michigan Technological University
- Xin Wang - Michigan Technological University
- Paul Dice - Michigan Technological University
- Mahdi Shahbakhti - Michigan Technological University
- Jeffrey Naber - Michigan Technological University
- Michael Czekala - Ford Motor Company
- Qiuping Qu - Ford Motor Company
- Garlan Huberts - Ford Motor Company
CitationWang, Y., Zhang, J., Yang, Z., Wang, X. et al., "Investigation of Flow Conditions and Tumble near the Spark Plug in a DI Optical Engine at Ignition," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0208, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0208.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
- Environmental Protection Agency , “Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2016”, 2016.
- EPA , “EPA and NHTSA Set Standards to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Model Years 2017-2025 Cars and Light Trucks,” (Environmental Protection Agency, 2012).
- Lavoie, G., Ortiz-Soto, E., Babajimopoulos, A., Martz, J.B. et al. , “Thermodynamic Sweet Spot for High-Efficiency, Dilute, Boosted Gasoline Engines,” International Journal of Engine Research1468087412455372, 2012, doi:10.1177/1468087412455372.
- Caton, J.A. , “A Comparison of Lean Operation and Exhaust Gas Recirculation: Thermodynamic Reasons for the Increases of Efficiency,” SAE Technical Paper 2013010266, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0266.
- Ayala, F.A. and Heywood, J.B. , “Lean SI Engines: The Role of Combustion Variability in Defining Lean Limits,” SAE Technical Paper 2007240030, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-24-0030.
- Heywood, J.B. , “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals,” Chapter 9, Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines, (McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1988).
- Nakai, M., Nakagawa, Y., Hamai, K., and Sone, M. , “Stabilized Combustion in a Spark Ignited Engine Through a Long Spark Duration,” SAE Technical Paper 850075, 1985, doi:10.4271/850075.
- Tanoue, K., Hotta, E., and Moriyoshi, Y. , “Enhancement of Ignition Characteristics of Lean Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Mixtures by Repetitive Pulse Discharges,” International Journal of Engine Research 10(6):399-407, 2009.
- Chen, W., Madison, D., Dice, P., Naber, J. et al. , “Impact of Ignition Energy Phasing and Spark Gap on Combustion in a Homogenous Direct Injection Gasoline SI Engine Near the EGR Limit,” SAE Technical Paper 2013011630, 2013, doi:10.4271/201301-1630.
- Zhang, A., Cung, K., Lee, S.-Y., Naber, J. et al. , “The Impact of Spark Discharge Pattern on Flame Initiation in a Turbulent Lean and Dilute Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel,” SAE International Journal of Engines 6(1):435-446, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1627.
- Jung, D., Sasaki, K., Sugata, K., Matsuda, M. et al. , “Combined Effects of Spark Discharge Pattern and Tumble Level on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Combustion at Lean Limits of SI Engine Operation,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0677, 2017, doi:10.4271/201701-0677.
- Pischinger, S. and Heywood, J.B. , “How Heat Losses to the Spark Plug Electrodes Affect Flame Kernel Development in an SI-Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 900021, 1990, doi:10.4271/900021.
- Zhao, L., Moiz, A.A., Som, S., Fogla, N. et al. , “Examining the Role of Flame Topologies and In-Cylinder Flow Fields on Cyclic Variability in Spark-Ignited Engines Using Large-Eddy Simulation,” International Journal of Engine Research1468087417732447, 2017, doi:10.1177/1468087417732447.
- Peterson, B., Reuss, D.L., and Sick, V. , “High-Speed Imaging Analysis of Misfires in a Spray-Guided Direct Injection Engine,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 33(2):3089-3096, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.proci.2010.07.079.
- Peterson, B., Reuss, D.L., and Sick, V. , “On the Ignition and Flame Development in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine,” Combustion and Flame 161(1):240-255, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2013.08.019.
- Peterson, B. and Sick, V. , “High-Speed Flow and Fuel Imaging Study of Available Spark Energy in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Engine and Implications on Misfires,” International Journal of Engine Research 11(5):313-329, 2010, doi:10.1243/14680874JER587.
- Maly, R. and Meinel, H. “Determination of Flow Velocity, Turbulence Intensity and Length and Time Scales from Gas Discharge Parameters,” in 5th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, 1981.
- Kim, J. and Anderson, R.W. , “Spark Anemometry of Bulk Gas Velocity at the Plug Gap of a Firing Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 952459, 1995, doi:10.4271/952459.
- Pashley, N., Stone, R., and Roberts, G. , “Ignition System Measurement Techniques and Correlations for Breakdown and Arc Voltages and Currents,” SAE International 2000010245, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0245.
- Yi, J., Wooldridge, S., Coulson, G., Hilditch, J. et al. , “Development and Optimization of the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Combustion System,” SAE International Journal of Engines 2(1):1388-1407, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1494.
- Davis, R.S., Mandrusiak, G.D., and Landenfeld, T. , “Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Engine with Direct Injection,” SAE International Journal of Engines 1(1):85-100, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-0132.
- Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Wang, X., Dice, P. et al. , “Investigation of Impacts of Spark Plug Orientation on Early Flame Development and Combustion in a DI Optical Engine,” SAE International Journal of Engines 10(3):995-1010, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0680.
- Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Dice, P., Wang, X. et al. , “An Experimental Study on the Interaction between Flow and Spark Plug Orientation on Ignition Energy and Duration for Different Electrode Designs,” SAE International 2017010672, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017010672.
- Sabroske, K.R., Hoying, D.A. and Rabe, D.C. “Laskin Nozzle Particle Generator”, U.S. Patent No.5498374, Mar 12, 1996.