This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control

Journal Article
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 16, 2012 by SAE International in United States
Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control
Citation: Brahma, I., "Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control," SAE Int. J. Engines 5(2):608-621, 2012,
Language: English


  1. Oberdörster, G., Utell, M. J., 2002, Ultrafine Particles in the Urban Air: to the Respiratory Track and Beyond, Environmental Health Perspectives, 110, A440-A441
  2. Pope, C.A., Dockery, D.W., 2006, Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines That Connect, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56, 709-742.
  3. Air Quality Management District (AQMD), (2006), “Ultrafine particles-The Science, Technology and Policy Issues”, Conference held in Los Angeles, United States.
  4. Merola, S., Vaglieco, B., and Di Iorio, S., “Nanoparticles at Internal Combustion Engines Exhaust: Effect on Urban Area,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3006, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3006.
  5. Goto, Y., Lee, J., Kawai, T., and Odaka, M., “Trapping Performance of Fine Particles from a Diesel Engine by Various DPFs with Different Surface Structures,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0598, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-0598.
  6. Millo, F., Vezza, D., Vlachos, T., Fino, D. et al., “Particle Number and Size Distribution from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine during DPF Regeneration,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):404-413, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1552.
  7. Di Iorio, S., Beatrice, C., Guido, C., Del Giacomo, N. et al., “Analysis of Particle Mass and Size Emissions from a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter during Regeneration by Means of Actual Injection Strategies in Light Duty Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(2):2510-2518, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-24-0210.
  8. De Filippo, A., “Particle Size and Number Emissions from Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0632, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0632.
  9. COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 692/2008 of 18 July 2008 implementing and amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, Official Journal of the European Union, 28/7/2008.
  10. Hagena, J., Filipi, Z., and Assanis, D., “Transient Diesel Emissions: Analysis of Engine Operation During a Tip-In,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1151, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-1151.
  11. Brahma, I. and Chi, J., “Development of Model Based Transient Calibration Process: Part 1: Data Requirements, Processing and Analysis”, accepted for publication by the International Journal of Engine research, accepted on Aug 2011
  12. Brahma, I. and Chi, J., “Development of Model Based Transient Calibration Process: Part 2: Modeling and Optimization”, accepted for publication by the International Journal of Engine research, accepted on Aug 2011
  13. Brahma, I., Sharp, M., and Frazier, T., “Empirical Modeling of Transient Emissions and Transient Response for Transient Optimization”, SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):1433-1443, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1508.
  14. Brahma, I., “Development of Dynamic Constraint Models for a Model Based Transient Calibration Process,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):828-836, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0691.
  15. Atkinson, C., Allain, M., and Zhang, H., “Using Model-Based Rapid Transient Calibration to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1365, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-1365.
  16. Atkinson, C. and Mott, G., “Dynamic Model-Based Calibration Optimization: An Introduction and Application to Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0026, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0026.
  17. Giakoumis, E.G., and Alafouzos, A.I., “Study of diesel engine performance and emissions during a transient cycle applying an engine mapping-based methodology”, Applied Energy 87(2010) 1358-1365, 2010
  18. Castagna, E., Cottrell, J., Fino, D., and Saracco, G., “Combined steady state and transient optimization for dynamic smoke reduction on Heavy Duty engine (TIER3 Applications),” SAE Technical Paper 2007-24-0055, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-24-0055.
  19. Filipi, Z., Wang, Y., and Assanis, D., “Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1247, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-1247.
  20. Filipi, Z., Hagena, J., and Fathy, H., “Investigating the Impact of In-Vehicle Transients on Diesel Soot Emissions”, Thermal Science, Vol. 12 (2008), No.1, pp, 53-72, 2008
  21. Hagena, J.R., Assanis, D.N., and Filipi, Z.S., “Cycle-resolved measurements of in-cylinder constituents during diesel engine transients and insight into their impact on emissions”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 2011, pp 225: 1103, DOI: 10.1177/0954407011414997.
  22. Rakopoulos, C.D., Dimaratos, A.M., Giakoumis, E.G., and Rakopoulos, D.C., “Evaluation of the effect of engine, load and turbocharger parameters on transient emissions of diesel engine”, Energy Conversion and Management 50 (2009) pp 2381-2393
  23. Rakopoulos, C.D., and Giakoumis, E.G., “Sensitivity analysis of transient diesel engine simulation”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 2006 220: 89, DOI: 10.1243/095440705X69641.
  24. Rakopoulos, C.D., Dimaratos, A.M., and Giakoumis, E.G., “Investigation of turbocharged diesel engine operation, exhaust emissions, and combustion noise radiation during starting under cold, warm, and hot conditions”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 2011 225: 1118, DOI: 10.1177/0954407011400155.
  25. Nuszkowski, J., Thompson, G., and Ursic, M., “The Influence of Accelerator Pedal Position Control during Transient Laboratory Testing on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):398-413, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0619.
  26. Nuszkowski, J. and Thompson, G., “Application and Repeatability of Transient Heat Release Analysis for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1125, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1125.
  27. Galindo, J., Bermúdez, V., Serrano, J., and López, J., “Cycle to Cycle Diesel Combustion Characterisation During Engine Transient Operation,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3262, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-3262.
  28. Galindo, J., Lujan, J.M., Serrano, J.R., Dolz, V., and Guilain, S., (2004) “Design of an exhaust manifold to improve transient performance of an high speed turbocharged diesel engine”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. 863-875
  29. Galindo, J., Serrano, J.R., Vera, F., and Cervello, C., (2006) “Relevance of valve overlap for meeting Euro 5 soot emissions requirements during load transient process in heavy duty diesel engines”, Int. J. Vehicle Design, Vol. 41, Nos. 1/2/3/4 2006, pp343-367
  30. Reifarth, S. and Angstrom, H., “Transient EGR in a High-Speed DI Diesel Engine for a set of different EGR-routings,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3(1):1071-1078, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1271.
  31. Darlington, A., Glover, K., and Collings, N., “A Simple Diesel Engine Air-Path Model to Predict Cylinder Charge During Transients: Strategies for Reducing Transient Emission Spikes”
  32. Bai, L. and Yang, M., “Coordinated Control of EGR and VNT in Turbocharged Diesel Engine Based on Intake Air Mass Observer,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-1292, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-1292.
  33. Ammann, M., Fekete, N., Guzzella, L., and Glattfelder, A., "Model-Based Control of the VGT and EGR in a Turbocharged Common-Rail Diesel Engine: Theory and Passenger Car Implementation," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0357, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-0357.
  34. Kolmanovsky, I., Morall, P., van Nieuwstadt, M., & Stefanopoulou, A. 1997. Issues in modelling and control of intake flow in variable geometry turbocharged engines. Proceedings of the 18th IFIP TC7 Conference on Systems Modelling and Optimization, pp. 436-445.
  35. Stefanolpoulou, A. 1998 (June). Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions. In: Proceedings of the IEEE American Control Conference.
  36. van Nieuwstadt, M., Kolmanovsky, I., and Moraal, P., “Coordinated EGR-VGT Control for Diesel Engines: an Experimental Comparison,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0266, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0266.
  37. Yilmaz, H., & Stefanopoulou, A. 2003 (June). Control of Charge Dilution in Turbocharged Diesel Engines via Exhaust Valve Timing. Pages pp. 761-766 of: Proceedings of the IEEE American Control Conference.
  38. Liu, Z., Thurow, E., Lincoln, J., Chen, D. et al., “Transient Analysis of Engine Nano-Particles Using a Fast-Scanning Differential Mobility Particle Analyzer,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0971, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-0971.
  39. Liu, Z., Thurow, E., Caldow, R., and Johnson, T., “Transient Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters as Measured by an Engine Exhaust Particle Size Spectrometer,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0185, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0185.
  40. Liu, G.Z., Ford, D.C., Vasys, V.N., Chen, D., and Johnson, T.R., “Influence of Engine Operating Conditions on Diesel Particulate Matter Emissions in Relation to Transient and Steady-State Conditions”, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 4593-4599
  41. Kass, M., Domingo, N., Storey, J., and Lewis, S., “Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 1(1):1560-1570, 2009, doi:10.4271/2008-01-2497.
  42. Pagán, J., “Study of Particle Size Distributions Emitted by a Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1141, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-1141.
  43. Bertola, A., Schubiger, R., Kasper, A., Matter, U. et al., “Characterization of Diesel Particulate Emissions in Heavy-Duty DI-Diesel Engines with Common Rail Fuel Injection Influence of Injection Parameters and Fuel Composition,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3573, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-3573.
  44. Desantes, J., Bermudez, V., Garcia, A., Linares, W. et al., “An Investigation of Particle Size Distributions with Post Injection in DI Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1379, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1379.
  45. Zhang, J., Zhang, F., Tian, G., Xu, H. et al., “The Particle Emission Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine by Using Different Pilot Injections,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1959, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1959.
  46. Scafati, F., Cesario, N., Lavorgna, M., Merola, S. et al., “Soft Computing Model for Prediction of EGR Effects on Particle Sizing at CR Diesel Engine Exhaust,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-24-0104, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-24-0104.
  47. Zhu, J. and Lee, K., “Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Particulate Morphology for a Light-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0195, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0195.
  48. Yao, D., Lou, D., Hu, Z., and Tan, P., “Experimental Investigation on Particle Number and Size Distribution of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueling with Alternative Blended Diesel Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0620, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0620.
  49. Farron, C., Matthias, N., Foster, D., Andrie, M. et al., “Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1220, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1220.
  50. Brahma, I., “An investigation Into the Causes of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes in Production Diesel Engines”, Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference ICEF2011, October 2-5, 2011, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
  51. Breiman, L., Friedman, J., Olshen, R., and Stone, C.. Classification and Regression Trees. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1984
  52. Hiroyasu, H. and Kadota, T., “Models for Combustion and Formation of Nitric Oxide and Soot in Direct Injection Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 760129, 1976, doi: 10.4271/760129.
  53. Brahma, I. “Analysis of air flow and EGR flow their effect on particulate formation during the turbocharger lag period”, manuscript in preparation

Cited By