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Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines: CFD and Optical Analysis of Single- and Multi-Hole Nozzles
- Journal Article
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-24-0096
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published September 11, 2011 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Scarcelli, R., Wallner, T., Matthias, N., Salazar, V. et al., "Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines: CFD and Optical Analysis of Single- and Multi-Hole Nozzles," SAE Int. J. Engines 4(2):2361-2375, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-24-0096.
This paper describes the validation of a CFD code for mixture preparation in a direct injection hydrogen-fueled engine. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located injector. A single-hole and a 13-hole nozzle are used at about 100 bar and 25 bar injection pressure. Numerical results from the commercial code Fluent (v6.3.35) are compared to measurements in an optically accessible engine. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence provides phase-locked images of the fuel mole-fraction, while single-cycle visualization of the early jet penetration is achieved by a high-speed schlieren technique. The characteristics of the computational grids are discussed, especially for the near-nozzle region, where the jets are under-expanded.
Simulation of injection from the single-hole nozzle yields good agreement between numerical and optical results in terms of jet penetration and overall evolution. The 13-hole nozzle creates intense jet-to-jet interaction, with all jets merging into a single effective jet immediately downstream of the under-expanded region. This phenomenon (usually referred as Coanda Effect) is more challenging to the numerical simulation and requires higher level of detail in numerical simulation and grid resolution, with particular regard to the fields near the injector nozzle.