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1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 12, 2011 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Bozza, F., De Bellis, V., Marelli, S., and Capobianco, M., "1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions," SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):1365-1384, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1147.
Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and diesel automotive applications. To achieve excellent engine performance for road application, it is necessary to overcome some typical turbocharging drawbacks i.e., low end torque level and transient response. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). Different numerical procedures have been developed at the University of Naples to predict automotive turbocharger compressor performance both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. A classical 1D approach, based on the employment of compressor characteristic maps, was firstly followed. A different and more refined procedure has been recently proposed. The new approach is based on the solution of the 1D unsteady flow within the stationary and rotating channels constituting the compressor device, starting from a reduced set of geometrical data. The refined methodology can be utilized to directly compute the stationary map of the compressor but also to reproduce the unsteady flow behavior of the device.
A specialized components test rig (particularly suited to study automotive turbochargers) has been operating since several years at the University of Genoa. The test facility also allows to develop studies under unsteady flow conditions both on single components and subassemblies of engine intake and exhaust circuit.
In the paper the results of a preliminary experimental study developed on a turbocharger compressor for gasoline engine application under unsteady flow conditions are presented. Instantaneous inlet and outlet static pressure and mass flow rate are compared with the corresponding numerical data supplied by simulation codes. The numerical results showed a good agreement with experimental data. In addition, the comparison between the classical and the refined procedure results highlighted the potential of the performed unsteady 1D calculation, especially in specific compressor operating conditions.
The integration of the experimental activity with the numerical analysis represents a methodology that can be helpfully employed during the design process of internal combustion engine intake systems.