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Assessment of Optimization Methodologies to Study the Effects of Bowl Geometry, Spray Targeting and Swirl Ratio for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operated at High-Load
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 14, 2008 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Shi, Y. and Reitz, R., "Assessment of Optimization Methodologies to Study the Effects of Bowl Geometry, Spray Targeting and Swirl Ratio for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operated at High-Load," SAE Int. J. Engines 1(1):537-557, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-0949.
In the present paper optimization tools are used to recommend low-emission engine combustion chamber designs, spray targeting and swirl ratio levels for a heavy-duty diesel engine operated at high-load. The study identifies aspects of the combustion and pollution formation that are affected by mixing processes, and offers guidance for better matching of the piston geometry with the spray plume geometry for enhanced mixing. By coupling a GA (genetic algorithm) with the KIVA-CFD code, and also by utilizing an automated grid generation technique, multi-objective optimizations with goals of low emissions and fuel economy were achieved. Three different multi-objective genetic algorithms including a Micro-Genetic Algorithm (μGA), a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) and an Adaptive Range Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (ARMOGA) were compared for conducting the optimization under the same conditions. Assessments of the optimization methodologies are provided and suggestions are given for the application of genetic algorithms in engine optimizations. A non-parametric regression analysis tool was also used to post-process the optimized results in order to provide an understanding of the effects of each optimized parameter on fuel economy and pollutant formation. It was found that an optimal combination of spray targeting, swirl ratio and bowl geometry exists that simultaneously minimizes emissions formation and offers improved fuel consumption.