This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Restrained and Unrestrained Driver Reach Barriers
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 15, 2004 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Design and packaging of automotive interiors and airplane cockpits has become a science in itself, particularly in recent years where safety is paramount. There are various methods for restraining operators in their seats, including fitting an operator, such as a race car driver or pilot, with two seat belts, one for each side of the body, a three point restraining system as in commercial vehicles, and a lap belt as in some trucks and other types of vehicles. Moreover, significant experimental efforts have been made to study driver reach and barriers since they directly affect performance and safety. This paper presents a rigorous formulation for addressing the reach envelope and barriers therein of a 3-point restrained driver compared with a lap-belt-restrained driver. The formulation is based on a kinematic model of the driver, which characterizes the upper body and arm as 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) for an unrestrained and 4DOF for a 3-point restrained driver. These kinematic equations are further developed to address crossability analysis, a concept that is based on a quadratic form of the acceleration of the hand as it moves across a barrier. Visualization of such barriers and their crossability results within the reach envelope provides significant insight into driver performance and reach zones.
|Technical Paper||Comparison of Visual Recognition Time of Analogue and Digital Displays in Automobiles|
|Technical Paper||Automotive Safety in Review|
|Technical Paper||Occupant Protection from Cargo in Armored Vehicles|
CitationYang, J., Abdel-Malek, K., and Nebel, K., "Restrained and Unrestrained Driver Reach Barriers," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2199, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-2199.
- Abdel-Malek, K. Yeh, H.J. 1997 “Geometric Representation of the Swept Volume Using Jacobian Rank-Deficiency Conditions,” Computer Aided Design 29 6 457 468
- Abdel-Malek, K. Yang, J. Brand, R. Tanbour, E. 2001 “Towards Understanding the Workspace of the Upper Extremities,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-2095 2001 SAE Transactions-Journal of Passenger Cars: Mechanical Systems 110 2198 2206
- Abdel-Malek, K. Yu, W. Jaber, M. 2001 “Realistic Posture Prediction,” Proceedings of 2001 SAE Digital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering June 26-28 Arlington, VA, USA
- Chaffin, D.B. 2001 Digital Human Modeling for Vehicle and Workspace Design SAE International Warrendable, PA 2001
- Denavit, J. Hartenberg, R.S. 1955 “A Kinematic Notation for Lower-Pair Mechanisms Based on Matrices” Journal of Applied Mechanics 77 215 221
- Farin, G. 1988 Curves and Surfaces for CAGD A Practical Guide Academic Press San Diego, CA
- Fu, K.S. Gonzalez, R.C. Lee, C.S. 1987 Robotics: Control, Sensing, Vision, And Intelligence McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York
- Hammond, D.C. Roe, R. W. 1972 “SAE Controls Reach Study,” SAE Technical Paper 720199
- Paul, R.P. 1981 Robot Manipulators: Mathematics, Programming, and Control MIT Press Cambridge, MA
- Porter, J. M. Case, K. Freer, M. T. Bonney, M. C. 1993 Computer-aided Ergonomics Design of Automobiles Automotive Ergonomics Peacock B. Karwowski W. 43-77 London, UK Taylor and Francis
- Reed, M. P. Parkinson, M. Chaffin, D. B. 2003 “A New Approach to Modeling Driver Reach,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0587
- Parkinson, M.B. Reed, M.P. Klinkenberger, A.L. 2003 “Assessing the Validity of Kinematically Generated Reach Envelopes” SAE Digital Human Modeling Conference
- Taylor A.E. Mann, W.R. 1972 Advanced Calculus Xerox Corp.