This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Study of the Flow Field Development During the Intake Stroke in an IC Engine Using 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 01, 1999 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The evolution of the flow field inside an IC engine during the intake stroke was studied using 2 different experimental techniques, namely the 2–D Particle Image Velocimetry (2–D PIV) and 3–D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3–D PTV) techniques. Both studies were conducted using a water analog engine simulation rig. The head tested was a typical pent–roof head geometry with two intake valves and one exhaust valve, and the simulated engine operating point corresponded to an idle condition. For both the 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV experiments, high–speed CCD cameras were used to record the motion of the flow tracer particles. The camera frame rate was adjusted to correspond to 1/4° of crank angle (CA), hence ensuring excellent temporal resolution for velocity calculations. For the 2–D PIV experiment, the flow field was illuminated by an Argon–ion laser with laser–sheet forming optics and this laser sheet was introduced through a transparent piston crown to illuminate the center tumble plane. For the 3–D PTV experiment, the flow field was illuminated through the same piston crown by a high power stroboscope. A total of 50 intake strokes were recorded for each experiment.
Owing to the relatively sparse nature of the 3–D data, the results from the 3–D PTV were only examined on a phase–averaged basis to study the evolution of the average 3–D flow field at each crank angle. Corresponding phase–averaged results from the 2–D PIV were also generated. The ensemble–averaged 2–D PIV results are very similar to the 3–D PTV results in the same plane, hence validating the use of the 3–D PTV technique to rapidly capture the entire 3–D flow field on an ensemble averaged basis. The average flow field generated by this head does not evolve into the final form (tumble and a pair of cross tumble eddies) until late into the intake stroke. Initially, the flow field is very energetic and contains relatively small and concentrated eddies.
The better spatial resolution of the 2–D PIV allows measurements of the instantaneous flow structures, yielding valuable information about the relatively smaller scale structures of the flow and the cycle–to–cycle variation of these flow patterns. We found that the average flow features are the result of relatively unstable instantaneous flow structures, considerably jittering in space from cycle to cycle. In summary, 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV are complementary experimental techniques to study intake generated flow fields. The 3–D PTV provides a relatively rapid assessment of the complete 3–D flow field topology while the 2–D PIV yields more localized details about the flow field, as well as cycle–resolved velocity information. Therefore, more accurate understandings of the flow field can be achieved by using both techniques on the same problem.
CitationChoi, W. and Guezennec, Y., "Study of the Flow Field Development During the Intake Stroke in an IC Engine Using 2–D PIV and 3–D PTV," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0957, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-0957.
In-Cylinder Velocity Measurements, Combustion, and Flow Diagnostics
Number: SP-1446; Published: 1999-03-01
Number: SP-1446; Published: 1999-03-01
- Adrian, R. J. “Bibliography on Particle Image Velocimetry Using Imaging Methods” TAM Report 817 University of Illinois 1996
- Choi, W.–C. Guezennec, Y. G. Jung, I. “Rapid Evaluation of Variable Valve Lift Strategies Using 3–D In–Cylinder Flow Measurements” SAE Paper 960951 1996
- Choi, W.–C. Guezennec, Y. G. Lee, C.–W. “Effect of Intake Valve Lift Profile and RPM on 3–D Mean and Fluctuating In–Cylinder Flows in an IC Engine” Proc. ASME 1996 Engine Technology Conference Youngstown, OH 1996
- Choi, W.–C. Guezennec, Y. G. “In Situ Calibration for Wide Angle 3–Dimensional Stereoscopic Image Analysis” Applied Optics 36 7364 7373 1997
- Choi, W.–C. Guezennec, Y. G. “Experimental Measurements of the Spatial Distribution of 3–D Lagrangian Dispersion Rates” JSME Int. Journal 40 4 1997
- Choi, W.–C. Guezennec, Y. G. “Experimental Investigation to Study Convective Mixing, Spatial Uniformity and Cycle–to–Cycle Variation during the Intake Stroke in an IC Engine” Proc. ASME ICE Conference 1998
- Choi, W.–C. Guezennec, Y. G. “Measurements of Cycle–to–Cycle Variations and Cycle–Resolved Turbulence in an I. C. Engine Using a 3–D Particle Tracking Velocimetry” JSME Int. Journal 41 4 1998
- Denlinger, A. R. Guezennec, Y. G. Choi, W.–C. “Dynamic Evolution of the 3–D Flow Field During the Latter Part of the Intake Stroke in an IC Engine SAE Paper 980485 1998
- Grant, I. “Selected Papers on Particle Image Velocimetry” SPIE Milestone Series MS–99 SPIE Optical Engineering Press 1994
- Guezennec, Y. G. Brodkey, R. S. Trigui, N. Kent, J. C. Algorithms for Fully–Automated Three–Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry” Exp. Fluids 17 209 219 1994
- Jackson, N. S. Stokes, J. Heikle, M. Downie, J. “A Dynamic Water Flow Visualization Rig for Automotive Combustion Systems Development” SAE Paper 950728 1995
- Kent, J. C. Mikulec, A. Rimai, L. Adamczyk, A. A. Mueller, S. R. Stein, R. A. Warren, C. C. “Observations on the Effects of Intake–Generated Swirl and Tumble on Combustion Duration” SAE Paper 892096 1989
- Kent, J. C. Trigui, N. Choi, W.–C. Guezennec, Y. G. “Characterization of Intake– Generated Flow Fields in an IC Engine Using 3–D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3–D PTV)” SAE Paper 940279 1994
- Khaligi, B. Huebler, M. S. “A Transient Water Analog of Dual Intake Valve Engine for Intake Flow Visualization and Full–Field Velocity Measurements” SAE Paper 880519 1988
- Lee, J Farrel, P. V. “Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of IC Engine Valve Flows” Proc. 6th Intl. Symp. on Appl. of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics Lisbon 1992
- Lee, K.–H Foster, D. E. “Cycle–by–Cycle Variation in Combustion and Mixture Concentration in the Vicinity of Spark Plug Gap” SAE Paper 950814
- Raffel, M. Willert, C. Kompenhans, J. “Particle Image Velocimetry: a Practical Guide” Springer Verlag 1998
- Reuss, D. L. Bardsley, M. Felton, P. G. Landreth, C. C. Adrian, R. J. “Velocity, Vorticity, and Strain–Rate Ahead of a Flame Measured in an Engine Using Particle Image Velocimetry” SAE Paper 900053 1990
- Reuss, D. L. “Two–Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry with Electro–Optical Image Shifting in an Internal Combustion Engine” Proc. SPIE 2005, Optical Diagnostics in Fluid and Thermal Flow 413 424 1993
- Trigui, N. Choi, W.–C. Guezennec, Y. G. “Cycle–Resolved Turbulence Intensity Measurements in IC Engines” SAE Paper 962085 1996
- Uruchihara, T. Murayama, T. Takagi, Y. Lee, K.–H. “Turbulence and Cycle–by–Cycle Variation of Mean Velocity Generated by Swirl and Tumble Flow and Their Effects on Combustion” SAE Paper 950813 1995
- Whitelaw, J. H. Xu, H. M. “Cyclic Variations in a Lean–Burn Spark Ignition Engine Without and With Swirl” SAE Paper 950683 1995
- Zhang, L. Takahiro, U. Toshiaki, T. Katsuhiko, Y. “A Study of the Cycle–to–Cycle Variation of In–Cylinder Flow in a Motored Engine Through Digital Image Processing of Visualized Images” SAE Paper 950727 1995
- Heywood, J. B. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals McGraw–Hill 1988