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Engine-in-the-Loop Analysis of the Influence of Manual Gearshift Duration on Vehicle Consumption and Emissions
ISSN: 2770-3460, e-ISSN: 2770-3479
Published September 20, 2022 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Gilormini, T., Chessé, P., Tauzia, X., and Colin, H., "Engine-in-the-Loop Analysis of the Influence of Manual Gearshift Duration on Vehicle Consumption and Emissions," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Veh. Syst. 16(1):2023, https://doi.org/10.4271/15-16-01-0003.
The tightening of emission standards and homologation rules lead car manufacturers to rely on simulation testing in early development phases. Coupling an engine to a testbench controlled by a real-time simulation environment allows flexible, reliable, and reproducible testing for consumption and emission studies. However, interest in this method referred to as engine-in-the-loop (EiL) is relatively recent and few details can be found regarding the simulation environment. Following previous work, this study details a driver model based on the PI structure and augmented with preview and anti-windup. The focus is set on a conventional powertrain with a manual transmission for which the driver must also manage the clutch pedal during gearshift and take-off phases. Extended analysis of vehicle tests allows defining the driver’s behavior during these phases for different profiles. The driver model is then tested in the EiL environment and the impact of the gearshift profile on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions can be assessed. Besides the slight increase in fuel consumption, results show that increasing the gearshift duration degrades the regulation of the richness by the ECU, thus increasing CO engine-out emissions as well as decreasing NOx emissions. Finally, results suggest that a longer gearshift also affects the catalyst efficiency, which results in higher NOx tailpipe emissions.