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Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America

Journal Article
13-01-01-0001
ISSN: 2640-642X, e-ISSN: 2640-6438
Published September 13, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America
Sector:
Citation: Klymenko, O., Ustymenko, V., Kolobov, K., Rychok, S. et al., "Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America," SAE J. STEEP 1(1):3-22, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/13-01-01-0001.
Language: English

Abstract:

This study analyzes the distribution of exhaust mass pollutants emission obtained in 1,157 tests in the European driving cycle of used light-duty vehicles (LDVs). At the time of production, the tested vehicles complied with the Federal environmental requirements of the United States (USA) and were imported to Europe from North America. They included 1,109 passenger cars (PCs) and 48 light-duty trucks (LDTs), equipped with gasoline engines. In general, for measured emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM): 25% of test results for PCs do not exceed the T2B5 limits of the US Federal Standard; 43% of test results for PCs do not exceed the thresholds, designated for on-board diagnostic system (OBD) proper functioning; 45% of test results for PCs do not exceed the European Union (EU)’s former standard “Euro-5” norms. The automotive manufacturers of the PCs group represented various legislative and engineering approaches in Europe (Volkswagen, VW), Japan (Mazda), and North America (Ford) that are reflected in the emissions analysis results. In particular, the stricter CO limits imposed in the EU and the stricter NOx limits in the USA correlated with the results of the VW and Ford vehicles, respectively. The Ford company vehicles, in general, represent the best emission results. In cases wherein the measured emission of the pollutants exceeds the legally established thresholds, the OBDs showed no malfunction indication and no fault codes in memory. After a run of approximately 50,000 km, the increase in emissions of CO, NMHC, NOx, and PM on average lie within 50-100% of the initial value for each subsequent 50,000 km. The results can guide the further improvement of LDV emission regulations worldwide. They also highlight that emission control strategies must comply with the US and EU legislation durability and in-service conformity requirements.