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Ducted Fuel Injection Provides Consistently Lower Soot Emissions in Sweep to Full-Load Conditions
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published July 14, 2023 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Buurman, N., Nyrenstedt, G., and Mueller, C., "Ducted Fuel Injection Provides Consistently Lower Soot Emissions in Sweep to Full-Load Conditions," SAE Int. J. Engines 17(1):2024, https://doi.org/10.4271/03-17-01-0001.
Earlier studies have proven how ducted fuel injection (DFI) substantially reduces soot for low- and mid-load conditions in heavy-duty engines, without significant adverse effects on other emissions. Nevertheless, no comprehensive DFI study exists showing soot reductions at high- and full-load conditions. This study investigated DFI in a single-cylinder, 1.7-L, optical engine from low- to full-load conditions with a low-net-carbon fuel consisting of 80% renewable diesel and 20% biodiesel. Over the tested load range, DFI reduced engine-out soot by 38.1–63.1% compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). This soot reduction occurred without significant detrimental effects on other emission types. Thus, DFI reduced the severity of the soot–NOx tradeoff at all tested conditions. While DFI delivered considerable soot reductions in the present study, previous DFI studies at low- and mid-load conditions delivered larger soot reductions (>90%) compared to CDC operation at the same conditions. Therefore, the DFI configuration used here has been deemed nonoptimal (in terms of parameters such as the injector-spray and piston geometries), and several improvements are recommended for future studies with high-load DFI. These improvements include employing better spray-duct alignment, a deeper piston bowl with a smaller injector umbrella angle, and a fuel injector that opens and closes faster. The study also suggests future research to make DFI ready for commercialization, such as metal-engine tests to ensure desirable DFI performance over an engine’s complete speed/load map. Overall, this study supports the continued development and commercialization of DFI to meet upcoming emissions regulations for heavy-duty vehicles. Specifically, multicylinder engine experiments and CFD simulations should be utilized to optimize the performance and clarify the full potential of DFI.