Ducted Fuel Injection versus Conventional Diesel Combustion: An Operating-Parameter Sensitivity Study Conducted in an Optical Engine with a Four-Orifice Fuel Injector
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 13, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Nilsen, C., Biles, D., Yraguen, B., and Mueller, C., "Ducted Fuel Injection versus Conventional Diesel Combustion: An Operating-Parameter Sensitivity Study Conducted in an Optical Engine with a Four-Orifice Fuel Injector," SAE Int. J. Engines 13(3):345-362, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/03-13-03-0023.
Ducted fuel injection (DFI) has been shown to attenuate engine-out soot emissions from diesel engines. The concept is to inject fuel through a small tube within the combustion chamber to enable lower equivalence ratios at the autoignition zone, relative to conventional diesel combustion. Previous experiments have demonstrated that DFI enables significant soot attenuation relative to conventional diesel combustion for a small set of operating conditions at relatively low engine loads. This is the first study to compare DFI to conventional diesel combustion over a wide range of operating conditions and at higher loads (up to 8.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure) with a four-orifice fuel injector. This study compares DFI to conventional diesel combustion through sweeps of intake-oxygen mole fraction (XO2), injection duration, intake pressure, start of combustion (SOC) timing, fuel-injection pressure, and intake temperature. DFI is shown to curtail engine-out soot emissions at all tested conditions. Under certain conditions, DFI can attenuate engine-out soot by over a factor of 100. In addition to producing significantly lower engine-out soot emissions, DFI enables the engine to be operated at low-NOx conditions that are not feasible with conventional diesel combustion due to high soot emissions.