Effect of Ethanol and Iso-Octane Blends on Isolated Low-Temperature Heat Release in a Spark Ignition Engine

Authors Abstract
Low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is of interest for its potential to help control autoignition in advanced compression ignition (ACI) engines and mitigate knock in spark ignition (SI) engines. Previous studies have identified and investigated LTHR in both ACI and SI engines before the main high-temperature heat release (HTHR) event and, more recently, LTHR in isolation has been demonstrated in SI engines by appropriately curating the in-cylinder thermal state during compression and disabling the spark discharge. Ethanol is an increasingly common component of market fuel blends, owing to its renewable sources. In this work, the effect of adding ethanol to iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) blends on their LTHR behavior is demonstrated. Tests were run on a motored single-cylinder engine elevated inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted to realize LTHR from blends of iso-octane and ethanol without entering the HTHR regime. The blends were tested with inlet temperatures of 40°C–140°C at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 0.67, and 1.0 with boosted (1.5 barA) conditions. The measured LTHR decreased with increasing ethanol content for all conditions tested; iso-octane–ethanol blends with above 20% ethanol content (by volume) showed minimal LTHR under engine conditions. These net effects resulted from the combination of thermal effects (charge cooling) and chemical effects (reactivity changes at low temperatures). The effect of temperature, pressure, fuel composition, and equivalence ratio on ignition delay times calculated from chemical kinetic modeling are presented alongside pressure–temperature trajectories of the in-cylinder gases to explain the trends. The underlying cause of the trends is explained by using a sensitivity analysis to determine the contribution of each reaction within the chemical kinetic mechanism to first-stage ignition, revealing the effect of introducing ethanol on the OH radical pool and resulting LTHR intensity.
Meta TagsDetails
White, S., Bajwa, A., and Leach, F., "Effect of Ethanol and Iso-Octane Blends on Isolated Low-Temperature Heat Release in a Spark Ignition Engine,"https://doi.org/10.4271/04-17-03-0016.
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May 17
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Journal Article