A Technique of Estimating Particulate Matter Emission in Non-Road Engine Transient Cycle

Authors Abstract
Particulates are a major source of emission from diesel engine. They consist of particles of carbon, sulfates, oil, fuel, and water. These constituents are measured by filtering a sample diluted in a partial- or full-flow tunnel and weighing them. It is a general trend for measuring particulate matter (PM) on cycle basis. But 1-D simulation needs complete PM 3-D contour map considering all engine operating region. It is very tedious work for generating PM on each steady-state point on engine test bed. Hence, Filter smoke meter or opacimeter measurements can be used for estimating PM. Filter smoke meters measured the light reflected from a filter paper through which a known volume of exhaust gas was passed. Opacity meters measure light absorbed by a standard column of exhaust. Both equipments measure visible black smoke comparatively at lower expenditure cost. They are designed to control measurement noise, resolution and repeatability with acceptable accuracy level. Oil consumption and contribution of fuel sulfates are also considered in ISO 8178 R49, D2 and C1, India CEV Stage IIIA, India CPCB 2 and TREM IV emission standards for estimating total PM levels measured. In this article, a methodology is discussed to calculate PM from engine measured smoke, fuel properties and engine oil consumption. A similar methodology is applied for estimating PM under non-road transient cycle (NRTC) conditions. Initially, PM contour map is generated for 2 engine ratings, 43 kW and 55 kW. These maps are used as input for engine transient simulation model in Ricardo Ignite software for predicting cumulative PM emission. There is close matching between calculated and measured value of total PM both for steady-state cycle and NRTC.
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Nain, A., "A Technique of Estimating Particulate Matter Emission in Non-Road Engine Transient Cycle," SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 12(4):241-251, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/02-12-04-0019.
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Feb 7, 2020
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Journal Article