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Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Electric Traction Drives with an Efficiency Optimized DC-DC Converter Control

RWTH Aachen University-Konstantin Etzold, René Scheer, Timm Fahrbach, Shuang Zhou, Rafael Goldbeck, Daniel Guse, Fabian Frie, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Rik W. De Doncker, Jakob Andert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0462
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to reduce development cost and time, frontloading is an established methodology for automotive development programs. With this approach, particular development tasks are shifted to earlier program phases. One prerequisite for this approach is the application of Hardware-in-the-Loop test setups. Hardware-in-the-Loop methodologies have already successfully been applied to conventional as well as electrified powertrains considering various driving scenarios. Regarding driving performance and energy demand, electrified powertrains are highly dependent on the dc-link voltage. However, there is a particular shortage of studies focusing on the verification of variable dc-link voltage controls by Hardware-in-the-Loop setups. This article is intended to be a first step towards closing this gap. Thereto, a Hardware-in-the-Loop setup of a battery electric vehicle is developed. The electric powertrain consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine and an inverter, which are set up as real components at a laboratory test bench. The test bench is connected to a real-time vehicle simulation including a battery model and the dc-dc converter model. The entire Hardware-in-the-Loop setup is successfully validated by vehicle measurements performed on…
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Sensorless Individual Cell Temperature Measurement by Means of Impedance Spectroscopy Using Standard Battery Management Systems of Electric Vehicles

Ruhr-University Bochum-Peter Haussmann, Joachim Melbert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0863
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lithium ion technology is state of the art for actual hybrid and electrical vehicles. It is well known that lithium ion performance and safety characteristics strongly depend on temperature. Thus, reliable temperature measurement and control concepts for lithium ion cells are mandatory for applications in electrical cars. Temperature sensors for all individual cells increase the battery complexity and cost of a battery management system. Normally, temperature is measured on module level in current battery packs, without observation of the individual cell temperature. Sensorless cell impedance-based temperature measurement concepts have been published and are validated in laboratory studies. Dedicated test equipment is usually applied, which is not useful for automotive series application. This work describes a practical approach to enable impedance-based sensorless internal temperature measurement for all individual cells using state-of-the art battery management system components. Excitation is generated by DC to DC converters of a standard commercial active balancing systems. For data acquisition, also an established commercial battery monitoring circuit unit is used. To overcome bandwidth limitations, a sub-sampling scheme is presented, which allows to…

How to Protect Patients from Potential Electrical Failure

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35777
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

People and power don’t mix well, and this is particularly true when people are medical patients. Aside from the more usual environment of a medical facility, patients are also increasingly using medical devices at home. Medical equipment is therefore heavily regulated by standards-based requirements and subsequent product testing to ensure the safety of patients and healthcare professionals alike.

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Aircraft Electrical Installations

AE-8A Elec Wiring and Fiber Optic Interconnect Sys Install
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4404C
  • Current
Published 2019-09-19 by SAE International in United States
It is the purpose of this document to present design recommendations that will provide a basis for satisfactory and safe electrical installations in transport aircraft. This document is not intended to be a complete electrical installation design handbook. However, the requirements for safety extend so thoroughly throughout the electric systems that few areas of the installation are untouched by the document. It is recognized that individual circumstances may alter the details of any design. It is, therefore, important that this document not be considered mandatory but be used as a guide to good electrical application and installation design. Transport aircraft electric systems have rapidly increased in importance over a number of years until they are now used for many functions necessary to the successful operation of the aircraft. An ever increasing number of these functions are critical to the safety of the aircraft and its occupants. The greatly increased power available in electric systems is another factor in aircraft safety. These considerations make it essential that aircraft electrical design practices be carefully considered from the…
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Inductive Power Transfer for Spaceflight Systems

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34913
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed technology that uses inductive power transfer (IPT) for wireless power interfaces between spaceflight elements (such as the payload, vehicle, and pad). Current spaceflight systems require traditional hardwire connections for power interfaces. This introduces risk of failure due to such factors as bent pins and contact contamination, as well as other disadvantages.

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Communication Transceivers Qualification Requirements - LIN

Vehicle Architecture For Data Communications Standards
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2962/1_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-18 by SAE International in United States
This document covers the requirements for transceiver qualification. Requirements stated in this document will provide a minimum standard level of performance for the LIN transceiver block in the IC to which all compatible transceivers shall be designed. No other features in the IC are tested or qualified as part of this recommended practice. This will assure robust serial data communication among all connected devices regardless of supplier. The goal of SAE J2962-1 is to commonize approval processes of LIN transceivers across OEMs. The intended audience includes, but is not limited to, LIN transceiver suppliers, component release engineers, and vehicle system engineers.
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Communication Transceivers Qualification Requirements - CAN

Vehicle Architecture For Data Communications Standards
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2962/2_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-18 by SAE International in United States
This document covers the requirements for transceiver qualification. Requirements stated in this document will provide a minimum standard level of performance for the CAN transceiver in the IC to which all compatible transceivers shall be designed. No other features in the IC are tested or qualified as part of this recommended practice. This will assure robust serial data communication among all connected devices, regardless of supplier. The goal of SAE J2962-2 is to commonize approval processes of CAN transceivers across OEMs. The intended audience includes, but is not limited to, CAN transceiver suppliers, component release engineers, and vehicle system engineers.
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Synchros, General Specification for

AE-7A Generators and Controls Motors and Magnetic Devices
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS20708C
  • Current
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification relates to Synchros, 60 and 400 Hz. It is not complete in itself, but shall be used in conjunction with MIL-DTL-81963, in which the latter shall be recognized as forming an inherent part of this specification. This standard requires a Qualified Products List (see 6.4).
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Electrical Charging Systems for Off-Road Work Machines

CTTC C2, Electrical Components and Systems
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J180_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
This SAE standard describes alternator physical, performance, and application requirements for heavy-duty electrical charging systems for off-road work machines, including those defined in SAE J1116.
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Ultrasonic Inspection Thin Wall Metal Tubing

AMS K Non Destructive Methods and Processes Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2634B
  • Current
Published 2019-04-24 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers procedures for ultrasonic inspection of thin wall metal tubing of titanium, titanium alloy, and corrosion and heat resistant steels and alloys having nominal OD over 0.1875 inch (4.762 mm) with OD to wall thickness ratio of 8 or greater and wall thickness variation not exceeding ±10% of nominal.
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