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Numerical Simulation and Optimization for Combustion of an Opposed Piston Two-Stroke Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

Beijing Institute of Technology-Zhenfeng Zhao, Fujun Zhang
Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen-Lei Zhou, Hao Li, Zeyu Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0782
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An opposed piston two-stroke engine is more suitable for use in an unmanned aerial vehicle because of its small size, excellent self-balancing, stable operation, and low noise. Consequently, in this study, based on experimental data for a prototype opposed piston two-stroke engine, numerical simulation models were established using GT-POWER for 1D simulation and AVL-FIRE for 3D CFD simulation. The mesh grid and solver parameters for the numerical model of the CFD simulation were determined to guarantee the accuracy of the numerical simulation, before studying and optimizing the ventilation efficiency of the engine with different dip angles. Furthermore, the fuel spray and combustion were analyzed and optimized in details.
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Design Optimization and Aerodynamic Analysis of a Hybrid Blended Wing Body- VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Delhi Technological University-Pranav Bahl, Vikas Rastogi, Amit bainsla, Nitin Sharma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0472
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be effectively used to serve humanitarian relief efforts during environmental disasters. Designing such UAVs presents challenges in optimizing design variables such as maximizing endurance, maneuverability and payload capacity with minimum launch and recovery area. The Blended Wing Body (BWB) is a novel aircraft configuration offering enhanced performance over conventional UAVs. Designing a blended wing configuration UAV takes into account interdependency between aerodynamic performance and stability. Designing BWB is peculiar and is investigated in this paper with a view to achieve an aerodynamically stable and structurally sound configuration. The designed UAV is a hybrid of a tailless blended-wing-body and a tri-copter configuration with two forward tilt motors for transition into cruise flight after vertical take-off and back to multirotor while landing (VTOL-Vertical Take Off and Landing). The BWB is iteratively optimized in XFLR-5 for Dynamic and static stability. The wing design was optimized for aerodynamic and structural fitness in MATLAB using Meta-heuristic optimization methodology based on genetic evolutionary algorithm. The 3D CAD design was conceived on SolidWorks and analyzed in Pressure…
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SUV Kinematics during a Steer-Induced Rollover Resolved Using Consumer-Grade Video, Laser Scans and Match-Moving Techniques

MEA Forensic Engineers & Scientists-Cole R. Young, David J. King, Gunter P. Siegmund
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0642
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rollover crashes are complex events that generate motions in all six degrees of freedom (6DOF). Directly quantifying the angular rotations from video can be difficult and vehicle orientation as a function of time is often not reported for staged rollover crashes. Our goal was to evaluate the ability of using a match-moving technique and consumer-grade video cameras to quantify the roll, pitch and yaw angles and angular velocities of a rollover crash. We staged a steer-induced rollover of an SUV at 106 km/h. The vehicle was fitted with tri-axial accelerometers and angular rate sensors, and five consumer-grade video cameras (2 on tripods, 2 on drones, 1 handheld, ~30 fps) captured the event. Roll, pitch and yaw angles were determined from the video using specialized software. We then compared the vehicle orientation angles from the video data to the integrated angular rate data measured by onboard sensors, and also compared the angular rates from the differentiated video data to the angular rates measured directly by the sensors. We found that both methods of measuring the 3D…
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Human Response and Injury Resulting from Head Impacts with Unmanned Aircraft Systems

Aerospace Research Center, The Ohio State University-Matthew McCrink
Injury Biomechanics Research Center, The Ohio State Universi-David B. Stark, Arrianna K. Willis, Zach Eshelman, Yun-Seok Kang, Rakshit Ramachandra, John H. Bolte IV
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0002
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), commonly known as drones, are part of a new and budding industry in the United States. Economic and public benefits associated with UAS use across multiple commercial sectors are driving new regulations which alter the stringent laws currently restricting UAS flights over people. As new regulations are enacted and more UAS populate the national airspace, there is a need to both understand and quantify the risk associated with UAS impacts with the uninvolved public. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical response and injury outcomes of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) subjected to UAS head impacts. For this work, PMHS were tested with differing UAS vehicles at multiple impact angles, locations and speeds. Using a custom designed launching device, UAS vehicles were accelerated into the frontal, parietal, or vertex portions of subjects’ craniums at speeds up to 22 m/s. Of the 35 UAS impacts carried out, one AIS 2+ injury was observed: a 13 cm linear skull fracture resulting from a Phantom 3 impact. Additionally, injury risk curves…
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A Systematic Approach to Development Assurance and Safety of Unmanned Aerial Systems

Textron Aviation-Cory R. Laflin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0043
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The unrestrained design space for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) presents challenges to accurate safety assessment and the assurance of development to appropriate levels of rigor within those systems. The established safety and development assurance standards and practices were developed for vehicles operating in highly controlled conditions with continuous oversight. The very nature of unmanned systems introduce new failure conditions, even in those systems operating within the strict rules of the National Airspace System (NAS), particularly failures of control and command, situational awareness, and control security. Beyond those, the new concepts of operation being conceived by UAS developers introduce their own new set of considerations with regards to operating in uncontrolled airspace, often in close proximity to bystanders. These new concepts require new technologies beyond those currently supported by the hardware and software development assurance processes. However, the established standards and practices of aircraft development assurance and safety assessment can be adapted for the broader world of UAS applications, provided that the considerations driven by the new concepts of operation can be identified and properly analyzed.…
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Extended Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle via Structural Electrical Power Storage and Energy Generation Devices

Geoffrey Smith Oetting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0041
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
As the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have increased in the military, commercial and private sectors, special attention has been focused on improving upon high altitude long endurance (HALE) performance. Therefore, under a multi-year, multi-discipline senior project team comprised of Aerospace Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Mechanical engineering, and Chemical Engineering undergraduate teams, investigative and experimental research has begun into the substitution of various aircraft structural components with power storage and power generation devices used also as structure to improve flight endurance and performance capabilities of solar powered UAVs. One viable solution may be found in the reduction of the amount of parasitic weight due to the required power systems on board these types of aircraft. These power systems are usually found in the form of energy storage devices such as lithium polymer batteries and energy generation devices such as solar cells. This path led to the innovation of the ‘Flying Battery’. The ‘Flying Battery’ integrates various free energy generating devices such as structural solar cells, structural energy storage devices, thermo-electric generators, and vibration…
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Design of Elevons for a Hybrid VTOL-Blended Wing Body Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Delhi Technological University-Amit Bainsla, Vikas Rastogi, Pranav Bahl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0047
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The two primary requirements for a safe flight of a UAV are its stability and manoeuvrability. The purpose of this study is to design and validate elevons for a UAV having Blended Wing Body configuration which requires knowledge of various domains applied in a complex combination. Elevons are the unconventional control surfaces for the flying wings which will cause a pitching moment when moved in same direction and will cause a rolling moment when moved differentially and their preliminary design is affected by the function which is dominant. A MATLAB© code was written to decide the position, shape and size of elevons and later on accurately evaluated using high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The MATLAB© code calculates the required roll time rate taking into consideration the longitudinal and lateral control requirements. Using this coupled approach of MATLAB© code and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations significant optimization is achieved in designing the elevons.
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Performance of Isolated UAV Rotors at Low Reynolds Number

Georgia Institute of Technology-Yashvardhan Tomar, Narayanan Komerath
Indian Institute of Technology-Dhwanil Shukla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0046
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Vertical takeoff and landing vehicle platforms with many small rotors are gaining importance for small UAVs as well as distributed electric propulsion for larger vehicles. To predict vehicle performance, it must be possible to gauge interaction effects. These rotors operate in the less-known regime of low Reynolds number, with different blade geometry. As a first step, two identical commercial UAV rotors from a flight test program are studied in isolation, experimentally and computationally. Load measurements were performed in Georgia Tech’s 2.13 m × 2.74 m wind tunnel. Simulations were done using the RotCFD solver which uses a Navier-Stokes wake computation along with rotor-disc loads calculation using low-Reynolds number blade section data. It is found that in hover, small rotors available in the market vary noticeably in performance at low rotor speeds, the data converging at higher RPM and Reynolds number. This is indicative of the high sensitivity of low-Re rotor flows to minor geometrical differences/imperfections in the rotors. It requires proper handling in computations. CFD results show a higher deviation from the experimental thrust data…
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Facility Focus: Army Test and Evaluation Command

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36193
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) plans, integrates, and conducts experiments, developmental testing, independent operational testing, and independent evaluations and assessments to provide essential information to acquisition decision-makers and commanders.

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New Solution to Elderly Falls: Drones, Smartphones and Sensors

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36154
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A new system has been designed by a team of researchers from Iraq and the University of South Australia to remotely monitor elderly people, detecting abnormalities in their heart rate and temperature that can lead to falls, and provide urgent first aid via a drone if a fall occurs.