Your Selections

Tire friction
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Comparative Study on the Effects of the Tread Rubber Compounds on Tire Tractive performance on Ice

Virginia Tech-Hoda Mousavi, Corina Sandu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1228
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber compounds of a tire play an important role in the overall performance of the tire when it is in contact with the train. Although there are many studies conducted on the properties of the rubber compounds of the tire to improve some of the tire characteristics such as the wear of the tread, there is a limited number of studies that focus on the performance of the tires on ice. This study is part of a more comprehensive study to investigate the effect of rubber compounds on performance of the tire on ice. In this study three tires that are completely identical in terms of tire parameters (such as tire dimensions, treat pattern, tire structure, inflation pressure, etc., but have different tread rubber compounds have been investigated. Several tests have been conducted for the chosen tires in three modes: free rolling, braking, and traction using the Terramechanics Rig at TMVS at Virginia Tech. In this presentation we will only focus on the result for the traction tests. The…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A collision avoidance strategy of autonomous emergency braking based on the characteristics of driver-vehicle-road

Jiangsu University-Ren He, Dong Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1213
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the rise of intelligent transportation systems around the world, research on automobile active safety technology has gained widespread attention. Autonomous Emergency Braking(AEB) which can avoid or mitigate collision by active braking has become a hot research topic in the field of automobile. However, there are some limitations in the present Autonomous Emergency Braking(AEB) collision avoidance strategy, including lack of effective identification of road adhesion conditions, mismatch of active braking system parameters and imperfection of target vehicle motion information, which leads to poor collision avoidance performance on low adhesion coefficient road surface and intervention with the normal driving operation of the driver. A new collision avoidance strategy for AEB is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new safe distance collision avoidance model is established based on the tire-road maximum friction coefficient in real time, the performance parameters of the active braking system and the motion information of the target vehicle. Secondly, under the premise of not interfering with the driver's normal collision avoidance operation, an AEB collision avoidance strategy that can balance vehicle safety and…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Tire Performance Terminology

Highway Tire Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2047_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
This terminology aims to encompass all terms and definitions pertaining to the road performance of pneumatic tires designed for over-the-highway use, such as passenger car, light truck, truck and bus, and motorcycle tires. Not included are terms specific to the performance of agricultural, aircraft, industrial, and other off-highway tires. However, many terms contained in this document also apply to non-highway tires.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Determination of a Tyre’s Rolling Resistance Using Parallel Rheological Framework

University of Birmingham-Hamad Sarhan Aldhufairi, Oluremi Olatunbosun, Khamis Essa
Published 2019-06-20 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, rolling resistance sits at the core of tyre development goals because of its considerable effect on the car’s fuel economy. In contrast to the experimental method, the finite element (FE) method offers an inexpensive and efficient estimation technique. However, the FE technique is yet to be a fully developed product particularly for rolling-resistance estimation. An assessment is conducted to study the role of material viscoelasticity representation in FE, in linear and non-linear forms, through the use of Prony series and parallel rheological framework (PRF) models, respectively, on the tyre’s rolling-resistance calculation and its accuracy. A unique approach was introduced to estimate the rolling resistance according to the tyre’s hysteresis energy coefficient. The non-linear PRF choice resulted in rolling-resistance calculations that reasonably match that of the experimental work and the literature for various vertical load and inflation cases, whereas the Prony series option was found irresponsive to the tyre’s deformation in which it gave unreliable and infinitesimal outputs.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Landing Gear Shock Absorption Testing of Civil Aircraft

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5644
  • Current
Published 2019-04-17 by SAE International in United States
The intent of this document is to provide recommended practices for conducting shock absorption testing of civil aircraft landing gear equipped with oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. The primary focus is for Part 25 aircraft, but differences for Part 23, 27, and 29 aircraft are provided where appropriate.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Multi-Chamber Tire Concept for Low Rolling-Resistance

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University of Birmingham, UK-Hamad Sarhan Aldhufairi, Khamis Essa, Oluremi Olatunbosun
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0009
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Rolling-resistance is leading the direction of numerous tire developments due to its significant effect on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions considering the vehicles in use globally. Many attempts were made to reduce rolling-resistance in vehicles, but with no or limited success due to tire complexity and trade-offs. This article investigates the concept of multiple chambers inside the tire as a potential alternative solution for reducing rolling-resistance. To accomplish that, novel multi-chamber designs were introduced and numerically simulated through finite-element (FE) modeling. The FE models were compared against a standard design as the baseline. The influences on rolling-resistance, grip, cornering, and mechanical comfort were studied. The multi-chambers tire model reduced rolling-resistance considerably with acceptable trade-offs. Independent air volumes isolating the tread from sidewalls would maintain tire’s profile effectively. Different air concentration across the tire’s chambers gave the tire extended versatility. Rolling non-uniformity depends upon inner-chambers’ stability, sidewalls’ flexibility and tire/chamber(s) integration.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Combination of Intelligent Tire and Vehicle Dynamic Based Algorithm to Estimate the Tire-Road Friction

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

NIO, USA-Omid Ghasemalizadeh
Texas State University, USA-Seyedmeysam Khaleghian
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0007
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
One of the most important factors affecting the performance of vehicle active chassis control systems is the tire-road friction coefficient. Accurate estimation of the friction coefficient can lead to better performance of these controllers. In this study, a new three-step friction estimation algorithm, based on intelligent tire concept, is proposed, which is a combination of experiment-based and vehicle dynamic based approaches. In the first step of the proposed algorithm, the normal load is estimated using a trained Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The network was trained using the experimental data collected using a portable tire testing trailer. In the second step of the algorithm, the tire forces and the wheel longitudinal velocity are estimated through a two-step Kalman filter. Then, in the last step, using the estimated tire normal load and longitudinal and lateral forces, the friction coefficient can be estimated. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, experiments were performed using the trailer test setup and friction was calculated using the measured forces. Good agreement was observed between the estimated and actual friction coefficients.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Extended Kalman Filter Based Road Friction Coefficient Estimation and Experimental Verification

APTIV PLC-Bin Li, Guobiao Song
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Arlene Fang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Accurate road friction coefficient is crucial for the proper functioning of active chassis control systems. However, road friction coefficient is difficult to be measured directly. Using the available onboard sensors, a model-based Extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is proposed in this paper to estimate road friction coefficient. In the development of estimation algorithm, vehicle motion states such as sideslip angle, yaw rate and vehicle speed are first estimated. Then, road friction coefficient estimator is designed using nonlinear vehicle model together with the pre-estimated vehicle motion states. The proposed estimation algorithm is validated by both simulations and tests on a scaled model vehicle.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Estimation of Side Slip Angle Interacting Multiple Bicycle Models Approach for Vehicle Stability Control

Andong National University-Bongchoon Jang
Chassis R&D-Youngjin Hyun
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) based side slip angle estimation method to estimate side slip angle under various road conditions for vehicle stability control. Knowledge of the side slip angle is essential enhancing vehicle handling and stability. For the estimation of the side slip angles in previous researches, prior knowledge of tire parameters and road conditions have been employed, and sometimes additional sensors have been needed. These prior knowledge and additional sensors, however, necessitates many efforts and make an application of the estimation algorithm difficult. In this paper, side slip angle has been estimated using on-board vehicle sensors such as yaw rate and lateral acceleration sensors. The proposed estimation algorithm integrates the estimates from multiple Kalman filters based on the multiple models with different parameter set. The IMM approach enables a side slip angle estimation from originally equipped vehicle sensors without prior knowledge of tire and road. The proposed estimation algorithm is evaluated via vehicle tests in electronic control unit level. The results have shown that the proposed estimator can successfully estimate…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Rear-Wheel Steering Control for Enhanced Maneuverability of Vehicles

Seoul National University-Kwanwoo Park, Eunhyek Joa, Kyongsu Yi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a rear-wheel steering control method that can modify and improve the vehicle lateral response without tire model and parameter. The proposed control algorithm is a combination of steady-state and transient control. The steady state control input is designed to modify steady-state yaw rate response of the vehicle, i.e. understeer gradient of the vehicle. The transient control input is a feedback control to improve the transient response when the vehicle lateral behavior builds up. The control algorithm has been investigated via computer simulations. Compared to classical control methods, the proposed algorithm shows good vehicle lateral response such as small overshoot and fast response. Specifically, the proposed algorithm can alleviate stair-shaped response of the lateral acceleration. In addition, through tests with low friction road and high lateral acceleration, the proposed algorithm’s performance is verified to be robust for a variety of road friction and nonlinear tire characteristics, since tire information is excluded.
Annotation ability available