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Impact of fuel octane quality on various advanced vehicle technologies

Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland)-Caroline Magdalene Zinser, Patrick Haenel
Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Alastair Smith
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0619
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel with higher octane content is playing a key role in optimising engine performance by allowing a more optimal spark timing which leads to increased engine efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. In a previous study the impact of octane was investigated with a vehicle fleet of 20 vehicles using market representative fuels, varying from RON 91 to 100. The resulting data showed a clear performance and acceleration benefit when higher RON fuel was used. In this follow-up study 10 more vehicles were added to the database. The vehicle fleet was extended to be more representative of Asian markets, thus broadening the geographical relevance of the database, as well as adding vehicles with newer technologies such as boosted down-sized direct injection engines, or higher compression ratio engines. Eight different fuel combinations varying in RON were tested, representing standard gasoline and premium gasoline in different markets around the world. The new results augment our previously published octane study and result in a vehicle fleet dataset comprising 30 cars from 18 different automotive manufactures. Two key metrics were…
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Starting process control of a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine for range extender

Tongji University-Minglong Li, Ran Zhang, Xingyu Zeng, Weiqi Ding, Weiang Mao, Shaoye Jin, Rufeng Xu, Dengke Yuan, Zongjie Hu, Zaimin Zhong, Liguang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0315
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the increasing worldwide concern on environmental pollution, blade electrical vehicles (BEV) have attracted a lot attention. However, it still couldn’t satisfy the market requirements because of the low battery power density, high cost and long charging time. The range-extended electrical vehicle (REEV) got more attention because it could avoid the mileage anxiety of the BEVs with lower cost and potentially higher efficiency. When internal combustion engine (ICE) works as the power source of range extender (RE) for REEV, its NVH, emissions in starting process need to be optimized. In this paper, a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are coaxially connected. Meanwhile, batteries and load systems were equipped. The RE co-control system was developed based on Compact RIO, Labview and motor control unit (MCU). Focused on the starting process, the effects of first firing speeds, throttle control strategies and coolant temperatures were tested. The results show that the higher first firing speed is preferred without obvious torque fluctuation, and longer throttle switching duration to high load results in lower…
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Quantifying Engine Braking for Various Common Street Motorcycles

Collision and Injury Dynamics, Inc.-Henricus Jansen, Beau LeBlanc, Christopher Wilhelm, Tyler Shaw, Alvin Lowi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0880
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Motorcycle engine braking will be measured in each forward gear for a cross-section of typical street motorcycles. Using GPS data acquisition and video, curves will be developed showing deceleration relative to engine speed, ground speed, distance, and time. Motorcycle characteristics will include low, middle, and high displacement sport, V-twin two-cylinder cruiser, single-cylinder adventure, three-cylinder, and shaft-driven. Motorcycles will be accelerated to approximately 70 mph when achievable in the respective gear, and throttle will be abruptly closed. The motorcycles will cruise unbraked until 15 to 30 kilometers per hour. For control, each motorcycle will be accelerated to the test speed and shifted to neutral to measure combined wind and rolling resistance. Tests will be performed on level ground and in opposing compass directions to account for wind. The data acquired will give more insight to what extent engine braking is a factor for accident reconstruction. Further, it will show the variability between frictional losses for different types of motorcycle powertrains and drivetrains.
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Strategy for Optimizing an F1 Car’s Performance based on FIA Regulations

Oxford Brookes University-Karan Bopaiah, Stephen Samuel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0545
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of the V6 engines in Formula 1, in 2014, the sport aimed to close the gap between the automotive engine and high-performance motorsport engines in the area of fuel economy. A set of very challenging engineering regulations were introduced by the FIA to restrict the power from the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), while allowing for more power to be harvested through energy recovery systems. Although progress has been made in developing a highly efficient powertrain, the limit to which this system can be pushed to is still unknown due to a significant gap between the technological choices available and the optimal control strategy used. This study investigated an engine-powertrain model of an F1 car with real world driver data for estimating the vehicle’s full throttle performance. The work used engine and drive-cycle simulation-modeling tools to build a representative car model which complied with the 2019 FIA regulations, in conjunction with real world data to identify the most critical parameter such as the gear shift strategy and the maximum energy recovered, stored and…
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Effects of Injection Pressure, Intake throttling, and Cylinder Deactivation on Fuel Consumption and Emissions for a Light Duty Diesel Engine at Idle Conditions

University of Texas-Meng Lyu, Yousif Alsulaiman, Corey Tambasco, Matthew Hall, Ron Matthews
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0303
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The continuing growth of urban population centers has led to increased traffic congestion for which vehicles can spend considerable periods at low speed/low load and idle conditions. For light-duty Diesel vehicles, these low load conditions are characterized by low engine exhaust temperatures (~100oC). Exhaust temperatures can be too low to maintain the activity of the catalytic exhaust aftertreatment devices (usually need >~200oC) which can lead to high emissions that contribute to deteriorating urban air quality. This study is a follow on to two previous studies on the effects of throttling, post-injection, and cylinder deactivation (CDA) on light-duty Diesel engine exhaust temperatures and emissions. The focus of the present study is on fuel consumption and emissions with and without cylinder deactivation and the sensitivity to or effects of fuel rail pressure, along with observations of apparent idle engine friction. The baseline injection strategy was adapted from a 2014 Chevrolet Cruze having an engine similar to the light-duty 2.0 liter GM engine used for this study. All measurements were made under idle conditions and with the engine…
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EGR flow control strategy for a smaller capacity diesel engine using a phase shifting chamber

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Karthikeyan N. Krishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi, Vinodini Bhargava, Karthik Chandana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1358
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective strategy to control NOx emissions in diesel engines. EGR reduces NOx through lowering the oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber, as well as through heat absorption. The stringent emission norms have forced diesel engines to further improve thermal efficiency and reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx). Throttle control is adopted in diesel intake system to control the EGR & fresh charge flow and to meet the emissions norms. In three or lesser cylinder. diesel engines, predominantly single and two-cylinder diesel engines, there is a higher possibility of the exhaust gas reaching the intake throttle and Particulate matter getting deposited on the throttle body. This can significantly affect the idling stability and intake restriction in prolonged usage. In idling condition, the clogged throttle body stagnates the fresh charge from entering the cylinder. The work aims at the study of flow pattern for EGR reaching the throttle body. A numerical study is conducted on a two-cylinder smaller displacement diesel engine. In a two-cylinder engine with an EGR circuit the intake valve of…
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A Novel Velocity Planner for Autonomous Vehicle Considering Human Driver’s Habits

Wuhan University of Technology-Zongwei Cui, Xuexun Guo, Xiaofei Pei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0133
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In automatic driving application, the velocity planner can be considered as a key and critical factor to ensure the comfort performance. One of the most important tasks of the velocity planner is to simulate the velocity characteristics of human drivers. In this paper, two Driver In-the-Loop (DIL) experiments are designed to explain velocity characteristics of human drivers. In the first experiment, static obstacles are placed on both sides of the straight road to shorten the cross range that vehicles can driver across. Moreover, different cross ranges are set to study the influence of the steering wheel error on the velocity. In the second experiment, velocity characteristics of human drivers are investigated under the condition of different road widths and curvatures in a U-shaped turning road contour. In both DIL tests, different driving styles are analyzed through the operation result of several drivers, including throttle, braking, and steering. On this basis, a novel velocity planner is proposed based on DIL experimental results. Firstly, a target velocity in sampling terminal point is calculated. The calculation of the…
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Optimal Management of Charge and Discharge of Electric Vehicles Based on CAN Bus Communication

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Haoyu Wang, Donghua Guo, Zhenyu Wang, Hanyu Zhang, Zhicheng Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1297
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the shortage of energy and the continuous development of automotive technology, electric vehicles are gradually gaining popularity. However, during the running of the electric vehicle, there is a risk of exhaustion of the electric power, and the position of the charging pile is fixed, which is likely to cause anxiety and worry of the owner. At present, there is a lack of an effective energy consumption prediction system, which is convenient for the driver to make reasonable driving planning guidance. As a standard serial communication protocol of ISO, CAN bus has a simple structure, short development cycle, stability and reliability. In this paper, the CAN bus is used to extract the dynamic parameter information of the speed, engine speed and throttle opening of the traveling vehicle in real time. At the same time, based on the GPS and cloud database, the road condition information of the expected driving section is comprehensively considered, and the real-time energy consumption prediction model of the electric vehicle is established. The predicted value is compared with the remaining electricity,…
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High Speed Autonomous Vehicle Modeling and Construction

University of California, Irvine-Joseph Bell, Vatche Donikian, Gregory Washington
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0711
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Drag racing is one of the fastest accelerating automotive sports on the planet. Specially designed vehicles compete from a standstill to their maximum acceleration in a straight line for a predetermined length. This work seeks to develop a vehicle model for a competition eliminator dragster which is a specialized vehicle built to compete in the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA). A simple control strategy was also developed once the vehicle model was validated. Redundant braking, steering, throttle and shifting systems were all redesigned, modeled, and then implemented in vehicle. Three key sensors (camera, radar, lidar) were also integrated on to the vehicle to enable the vehicle to know its position relative to the track. All these systems were developed and designed such that the vehicle could be autonomously driven yet enable a safe hand off for manual operation as well.
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Analysis of In-Cylinder Flow and Cycle-to-Cycle Flow Variations in a Small Spark-Ignition Engine at Different Throttle Openings

Indian Institute of Technology-Afaque Alam, Mayank Mittal
TVS Motor Co., Ltd.-V Lakshminarasimhan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0793
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Flow variations from one cycle to the next significantly influence the mixture formation and combustion processes in engines. Therefore, it is important to understand the fluid motion and its cycle-to-cycle variations (CCVs) inside the engine cylinder. Researchers have generally investigated the cycle-to-cycle flow variations in moderate- to large-sized engines. In the present work, we have performed the flow measurement and analysis in a small spark-ignition engine. Experiments are conducted in an optically accessible, single-cylinder, port-fuel-injection engine with displacement volume of 110 cm3 at different throttle openings (i.e. 50% and WOT) using particle image velocimetry. Images are captured at different crank angle positions during both intake and compression strokes over a tumble measurement plane, bisecting the intake and exhaust valves and passing through the cylinder axis. The histograms of vorticity are used as a metric for the quantification of cycle-to-cycle flow variations. It is found that for wide-open (i.e. 100%) throttle, cycle-to-cycle variations first increased from 76 CAD (after TDC of intake) to a maximum value at about 118 CAD, and then decreased during the late…