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Real-Time Embedded Models for Simulation and Control of Clean and Fuel-Efficient Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Daimler Trucks North America-Marc Allain, Siddharth Mahesh
University of Michigan-Saravanan Duraiarasan, Rasoul Salehi, Fucong Wang, Anna Stefanopoulou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0257
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever increasing demand for fuel economy and stringent emission norms drives researchers to continuously innovate and improve engine modes to implement adaptive algorithms, where the engine states are continuously monitored and the control variables are manipulated to operate the engine at the most efficient regime. This paper presents a virtual engine developed by modeling a modern diesel engine and aftertreatment which can be used in real-time on a control unit to predict critical diesel engine variables such as fuel consumption and feed gas conditions including emissions, flow and temperature. A physics-based approach is followed in order to capture vital transient airpath and emission dynamics encountered during real driving condition. A minimal realization of the airpath model is coupled with a cycle averaged NOx emissions predictor to estimate transient feed gas NOx during steady state and transient conditions. The complete airpath and NOx emission model was implemented on a rapid prototyping controller and experimentally validated over steady state and transient emission cycles. The overall performance of the reduced order model was comparable to that of…
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A Connected Controls and Optimization System for Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation on a Light-Duty Plug-in Multi-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Michigan Technological University-Joseph Oncken, Joshua Orlando, Pradeep Krishna Bhat, Brandon Narodzonek, Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Bo Chen, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0591
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an overview of the connected controls and optimization system for vehicle dynamics and powertrain operation on a light-duty plug-in multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle developed as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program by Michigan Technological University in partnership with General Motors Co. The objective is to enable a 20% reduction in overall energy consumption and a 6% increase in electric vehicle range of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle through the utilization of connected and automated vehicle technologies. Technologies developed to achieve this goal were developed in two categories, the vehicle control level and the powertrain control level. Tools at the vehicle control level include Eco Routing, Coordinated Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), Eco Approach and Departure (EcoAND) and in-situ vehicle parameter characterization. Tools at the powertrain level include PHEV mode blending, predictive drive-unit state control, and non-linear model predictive control powertrain torque split management. These tools were developed with the capability of being implemented in a real-time vehicle control system. As a result, many of the developed technologies have been demonstrated in real-time…
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The study on exchange and mixture formation process of a 2-stroke Poppet valve diesel engine with various intake port structures and intake port optimization design

China North Engine Research Institute-Yan Zhang, Wei Liu, Shuyong Zhang
Tianjin University-Mengmeng Dong, Yiqiang Pei, Jing Qin, Chenxi Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0486
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two-stroke engines have to face the disadvantages of insufficient charge and loss of intake with long valve overlap period, especially the air short-circuiting of two-stroke poppet valve engine. To help optimize the scavenging process and mixture formation of a two-stroke poppet valve diesel engine, three common types of intake ports including horizontal intake port ,helical intake port and vertical intake port are analyzed first and their characteristics are summarized. Besides, the horizontal intake port structure of the two-stroke single cylinder diesel engine was improved locally. Under strict structural constraints, it was found that bifurcation position and deviation angle of intake port were sensitive positions in promoting scavenging and mixing effects without substantially increasing the overall height of the engine. In the meanwhile, intake port A and intake port B were presented and they showed better performance in steady flow measurement after being processed by rapid prototyping. The connections between scavenging process and steady state parameters were further explored from the experimental results, which pointed that the simply increase of average flow coefficient and average tumble…
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Multi-mode controller design for active seat suspension with energy-harvesting

Ebco Inc-Peijun Xu
Huazhong University of Science and Tech.-Zhenrui Zhang, Yunqing Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1083
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a multi-mode active seat suspension with a single actuator is proposed and built. A one-DOF seat suspension system is modeled based on a quarter of commercial vehicle model with a DC motor and a gear reducer as the actuator. Aiming at improving ride comfort and reducing energy consumption, a multi-mode controller is presented. According to the seat vertical acceleration and suspension dynamic travel signals, control strategies switch among three modes: active drive mode, energy harvesting mode and plug breaking mode. In active drive mode, the DC motor works in the driving state and its output torque which calculated by LQR algorithm is controlled by a current-loop controller; in energy harvesting mode, the DC motor works in the generator state by which induced current can charge the power source, in this mode, the DC motor is considered as a damper which damping coefficient is decided by the charging current and controlled by Skyhook algorithm; in plug breaking mode, the DC motor works in the plug breaking state and its inverse voltage reaches to…
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Integration of Autonomous Vehicle Frameworks for Software-in-the-Loop Testing

Clemson University-Sanket Bachuwar, Ardashir Bulsara, Huzefa Dossaji, Aditya Gopinath, Chris Paredis, Srikanth Pilla, Yunyi Jia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0709
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an approach for performing software in the loop testing of autonomous vehicle software developed in the Autoware.IO framework. Multitudes of autonomous driving frameworks exist today, each having its own pros and cons. Often, MATLAB-Simulink is used for rapid prototyping, system modeling and testing, specifically for the lower-level vehicle dynamics and powertrain control features. For the autonomous software, the Robotic Operating System (ROS) is more commonly used for integrating distributed software components so that they can easily share information through a publish and subscribe paradigm. Thorough testing and evaluation of such complex, distributed software, implemented on a physical vehicle poses significant challenges in terms of safety, time, and cost, especially when considering rare edge cases. Virtual prototyping is therefore a crucial enabler in the development of autonomous software. In a simulated environment, many traffic scenarios under a variety of environmental conditions can be quickly evaluated, at low cost, without safety concerns. In this paper, we report on a particular simulation environment consisting of three simulation tools. PreScan (by Siemens/TASS) combined with Simulink (by…
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A platform for quick development, simulation and test of autonomous driving vehicles

Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Co., Ltd.-Adm Jiang Jian Man, Li Wei Bing
Chinese Academy of Sciences-Liang Hua Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0713
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a platform to do rapid development, simulation and test of autonomous driving vehicles. By combining the advantages of rapid prototyping and software development, the proposed platform can develop and test core functions quickly, automatically generate codes and integrate them into domain controllers, and greatly improve the development efficiency. The platform consists of scene simulation software, vehicle dynamics simulation software, a rapid prototyping system and a chassis line control and execution system. Through the hardware-software cooperations, the platform can accomplish key algorithm development, MIL simulations, domain-control based HIL testing and development of line control and execution systems with guaranteed performance. By well considering the EE structure of vehicles, intra-vehicle communication and physical characteristics of line control systems, the platform ensures that the developped domain controllers can be directly implemented to road tests of autonomous driving vehicles. In the recent I-VISTA challenge of autonomous driving vehicles, the quickness of the development of functional modules was confirmed, an integrated test of system functions was passed and a second prize was awarded, which confirms the effectiveness…

Streamlining Post-Processing in Additive Manufacturing

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35666
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Undoubtedly there are many benefits associated with the use of additive manufacturing (AM) as a production technology. On a pan-industrial basis, manufacturers exploit the fact that through the use of AM they can not only build complex parts, in one piece, which were previously impossible, but they can also build stronger, lighter-weight parts, reduce material consumption, and benefit from assembly component consolidation across a range of applications. These advantages have all been well documented during the last 10-20 years as AM has emerged as a truly disruptive technology for prototyping and production, and are invariably seen as being enabled by the additive hardware that builds the parts. In reality, however, this is a partial picture, particularly for serial production applications of AM. AM hardware systems are actually just one part – albeit a vital part – of an extensive ecosystem of technologies that enable AM, both pre- and post-build.

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Light-Weighting of Additive Manufactured Automotive Fixtures through Topology Optimization Techniques

General Motors Technical Center India-Abhijith Naik, T Sujan, Suraj Desai, Saravanakumar Shanmugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2544
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent times. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques like injection molding, casting etc.; AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for the fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the parts. This paper reports the case studies of 3D-printed Automotive Fixtures which utilize computational methods (CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part. These methodologies were used to validate the current operating conditions, optimize the design, increase the stiffness of the original part and reduce the material costs. The newly optimized designs were verified successfully passing the Finite Element Analysis tests. The components have been printed and…
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Printed Electronics for Electrified Tattoos and Personalized Biosensors

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35458
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A fully print-in-place technique for electronics could enable technologies such as high-adhesion, embedded electronic tattoos and bandages with patient-specific biosensors.

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Integrated Engine States Estimation Using Extended Kalman Filter and Disturbance Observer

Clemson University-Qilun Zhu, Robert Prucka
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Accurate estimation of engine state(s) is vital for engine control systems to achieve their designated objectives. The fusion of sensors can significantly improve the estimation results in terms of accuracy and precision. This paper investigates using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to estimate engine state(s) for Spark Ignited (SI) engines with the external EGR system. The EKF combines air path sensors with cylinder pressure feedback through a control-oriented engine cycle domain model. The model integrates air path dynamics, torque generation, exhaust gas temperature, and residual gas mass. The EKF generates a cycle-based estimation of engine state(s) for model-based control algorithms, which is not the focus of this paper. The sensor and noise dynamics are analyzed and integrated into the EKF formulation. To account for ‘non-white’ disturbances including modeling errors and sensor/actuator offset, the EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance state(s) estimation. Case studies demonstrate that the disturbance augmented EKF can identify the sources of estimation errors and mitigates these errors automatically within several engine cycles. This paper concludes that the number of disturbance…
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