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IC engine internal cooling system modelling using 1D-CFD methodology

FCA Engineering India Pvt Ltd-AMIT KUMAR, Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, VAIBHAV PATIL, Kamalakannan J
FCA Engineering India Pvt, Ltd.-Dhananjay Sampat Autade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1168
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engine gets heated up due to continuous combustion of fuel. To keep engine working efficiently and prevent components damage due to very high temperature, the engine needs to be cooled down. Based on power output requirement and provision for cooling system, every engine has it’s unique cooling system. Liquid based cooling systems are majorly implemented in automobile. It’s important to keep in mind that during design phase that, cooling the engine will lower the power to fuel consumption ratio. Therefore, during lower ambient conditions, the cooling system should be able to uniformly increase the temperature of the engine components, engine oil and transmission oil. This is achieved by circulating the coolant through cooling jacket, engine oil heater and transmission oil heater, which will be heated by the combustion heat. The objective of this study is to build a steady state 1D-model of cooling system; comprising of water pump, cooling jacket, engine head, thermostat, radiator, cabin heater, engine and transmission oil heaters with plumbing system. This 1D model is used to simulate vehicle drive…
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Utilization of bench testing in vehicle thermal system development for extreme cold ambient condition

FCA-Sadek Rahman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1390
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automotive thermal systems are becoming complicated each year. The powertrain efficiency improvement initiatives are driving transmission and engine oil heaters into coolant network design alternatives. The initiatives of electrified and autonomous vehicles are making coolant networks even more complex. The coolant networks these days have many heat exchangers, electric water pumps and valves, apart from typical radiators, thermostat and heater core. Some of these heat exchangers including cabin heaters deal with very small amount of coolant flow rates at different ambient conditions. This paper describes how viscosity can be a major reason for simulation inaccuracy, and how to deal with it for each component in the coolant network. Both experimental and computational aspects have been considered in this paper with wide range of ambient temperatures. Methods have been proposed to handle these issues in the simulation phase at the early phase of automotive thermal system development, especially during extreme cold ambient conditions.
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Thermal performance augmentation of automobile radiator using water-based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluid as a coolant

S.V. National Inst. of Technology, Surat-Mahendrakumar Maisuria, Manishkumar K. Rathod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1340
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the recent past, rapid development in the performance of vehicle engine has taken place. Attempts are going on to produce high-efficiency engines at a minimum possible cost in order to fulfill the requirements of customers. However, usage of low thermal conductivity engine coolant limits the ability of cooling system to extract the heat, which ultimately results into difficulties in maintaining the compact size of cooling system. Also, increasing the cooling rate by conventional technologies i.e. providing fins and microchannel has already reached their limits. One of the alternative efforts to improve cooling rate in an automotive radiator to immerge and analyze new types of cooling fluids. Thus, in the present work, the experimental and analytical analysis is carried out to investigate the thermal performance of corrugated finned flat tube car radiator using water-based Al2O3 and CuO Nano fluid. Augmentation of heat transfer process is studied for Nano fluid in comparison to water coolant. The Nano fluid is prepared considering 0.2% Vol. concentration of Nanoparticle with water as a base fluid. A numerical code is…
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Experimental Analysis of a Multiple Radiator Cooling System with Computer Controlled Flow Rates

Clemson University-Zaker Syed, John Wagner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0944
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The automotive cooling system configuration has remained fixed for many decades with a large radiator plus fan, coolant pump, and bypass valve. To reduce cooling system power consumption, the introduction of multiple computer-controlled heat exchangers may offer some benefits. A paradigm shift from a single large radiator, sized for maximum load, to n-small radiators with individual flow control valves should allow fine-tuning of the heat rejection needs to minimize power. In this paper, a series of experimental scenarios featuring two identical parallel radiators have been studied for engine cooling in ground transportation applications. For a 20kW thermal load cooled using one radiator, the pump and fans required 1250 W to maintain the system around a coolant reference temperature of 80oC. In contrast, a two-radiator configuration required 1100 W for the same operating conditions. A 12 % reduction in fan and pump power consumption at a lower thermal load, while maintaining coolant temperature about setpoint value offers possibilities on redesigning the thermal management system. Given that vehicles often operate at reduced loads, these findings can help…
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Prediction of Air Temperature Distribution around Rider on Idling Motorcycle by CFD Using DES Model

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Yuzo Fujita, Hiroshi Tatsumi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0567
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this study, we investigated how to calculate and predict the air temperature distribution around the rider of a stationary motorcycle with the engine at idle. To analyze the air temperature distribution of an idling motorcycle, we needed to accurately predict the mixing of the forced convection air from the radiator fan and the natural convection air caused by the air temperature difference. For the calculation, we used two types of turbulent flow models: realizable k-ε (RKE) and detached eddy simulation (DES). First, in view of the mixing of the radiator exhaust with outside air, we made three-dimensional measurements of the air temperature distribution around the vehicle body to evaluate the accuracy of calculations made by the two models. We then used the models to predict the air temperature distribution around the rider for different air outlet duct configurations as well as for two motorcycles with different displacement values. The results showed that, although the RKE model effectively reproduced the qualitative trend of the air temperature distribution, it showed poorer prediction accuracy than the DES…
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Replacing Twin Electric Fan Radiator with Single Fan Radiator

Engine Design & Testing-Tushar Warkhade
Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Aashish Bhargava, Gaurav Soni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2381
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce - Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance.This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.Further Cooling system performance of engine is evaluated along with Fuel efficiency; results are compared with present configuration.
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Implementation and Experimentation of Effective Clog Removal Method in Tractors for Enhanced Condenser Life and Air Conditioning Performance During Reaper Application

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Gurpreet Singh, Prabhakaran Arumugam, Rakesh Sharma
Mahindra Research Valley-Shreekant Srivastava
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Tractors in the field are exposed to adverse operating conditions and are surrounded by dust and dirt. The tiny, thin and sharp broken straw and husks surround the system in reaper operation. The tractors which are equipped with air conditioning system tend to show detrimental effects in cooling performance. The compressor trips frequently by excess pressure developed in the system due to condenser clogging and hence cooling performance is reduced considerably. The air conditioning performance reduces due to the clogged condenser located on the top roof compartment of operator’s cabin, which is better design than keeping in front of radiator where clogging happens every hour and customer need to stop the tractor to clean it with specific blower. The present system is designed keeping condenser at the top of the roof where heavy particles won’t reach easily, So, condenser choking/clogging is observed every 2 hours, this makes the operator to perform repetitive cleaning operations with specific equipment and is a time-consuming process. The present system utilizes the condenser fan operating logic to eliminate this issue…
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Design and Implementation of Digital Twin for Predicting Failures in Automobiles Using Machine Learning Algorithms

VIT Universtity-Kalivaradhan Ramesh Babu
Vellore Institute of Technology-Ponnuraman Balakrishnan, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Muthaiyan Madiajagan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The drastic technological advancements in the field of autonomous vehicles and connected cars lead to substantial progression in the commercial values of automobile industries. However, these advancements force the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to shift from feedback-based reactive business analysis to operational-data based predictive analysis thereby enhancing both the customer satisfaction as well as business opportunities. The operational data is nothing but the parameters obtained from several parts of an automobile during its operation such as, temperature in radiator, viscosity of the engine oil and force applied over the brake disk. These operational data are gathered using several sensors implanted in different parts of an automobile and are continuously transmitted to backend computers to develop Digital Twin, which is a virtual model of the physical automobile. Later, gathered operational data are analyzed using data mining algorithms to predict the failures of an automobile well in advance, better insights into performance of an automobile thereby recommending alternative design choices and remote service management of failures by a professional technician. Firstly, this research work illustrates the platform…
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Test Method for Measuring Performance of Engine Cooling Fans

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1339_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-30 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for use in testing and evaluating the approximate performance of engine-driven cooling fans. This performance would include flow, pressure, and power. This flow and pressure information is used to estimate the engine cooling performance. This power consumption is used to estimate net engine power per SAE J1349. The procedure also provides a general description of equipment necessary to measure the approximate fan performance. The test conditions in the procedure generally will not match those of the installation for which cooling and fuel consumption information is desired. The performance of a given fan depends on the geometric details of the installation, including the shroud and its clearance. These details should be duplicated in the test setup if accurate performance measurement is expected. The performance at a given air density and speed also depends on the volumetric flow rate, or the pressure rise across the fan, since these two parameters are mutually dependent. These parameters depend on the pressure drop across the radiator core and the ram pressure due to vehicle…
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Component Nomenclature - Articulated Log Skidder, Rubber-Tired

MTC4, Forestry and Logging Equipment
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1109_201908
  • Historical
Published 2019-08-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard includes names of major components and parts particular to this type of machine.
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