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A cutting-edge technology to increase the friction coefficient in bolted joints in a simple way

3M do Brasil-Vanessa de Souza Valério, Rosana Emi Tamagawa, Kellen Cristina Busiol, Petrus Lencioni Filho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0236
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight vehicles are one of the most efficient solutions to reduce the fuel consumption and the emission of polluting gases, which leads the automotive industry to the constant need to manufacture ever lighter vehicles. Due to these current requirements, there is a general move toward compact and lightweight powertrain system designs. Although more compact, these systems must be able to transmit the same or even higher forces and torques. Dealing with these contradictory requirements adding to the constant request to minimize production and assembly costs is a huge challenge to engineers. One approach is to enhance the coefficient of static friction in friction joints. When friction joints are designed, physical parameters such as overall size and surface pressure usually can only be varied in a tight window. Load transmission capability in friction joints is thus limited by the friction coefficient of the mating materials. An efficient solution for these limitations is to apply a nickel diamond coating either to the actual parts of the joints or to friction shims for installation in the joint. In…
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CASE STUDY: RELATION BETWEEN LOADS AND ENGINE MOUNTS STIFFNESS VARIATION APPLIED ON MID SIZE TRUCK

General Motors Mercosul-Marcos Rogério Sanches Barbetti, Fernando Braga, Luiz Carlos Sá, Rafael Tedim Terra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0094
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This Paper has as objective to present a study about how the stiffness variation can affect the powertrain mounts system loading. The initial driver for this research is to find enablers to improve the durability performance through loads reduction without noise and vibration degradation.In this study, we will review a summary about powertrain mounts main characteristics to help the understanding how to establish the static and dynamic characteristics, with the external excitations originated from durability track as well the engine torque applied over the system.We used the mid-size truck as physical hardware and the required load data were collected through load cells installed on the powertrain mount system.The load data were analyzed individually per mount and split over the three axles (X, Y and Z). As control factor, we applied different stiffness or “tunings” on the mount rubber body and as result, we established the relation between stiffness and powertrain mounts system loading.The presented graphic results show the load behavior along the durability tracks, it is possible to understand and establish the relation between loads…
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Powertrain Hardware In The Loop X Vehicle Hardware In the Loop: How to Optimize Their Use During the Software Development Cycle

FCA - Fiat Chrysler Automotive-Jeeves Lopes dos Santos, Elaine Cristina Guglielmoni Silva, Cleber Albert Moreira Marques, Gustavo Maximo Urquiza de Sá, José Henrique Silva, Mauricio Vianna de Resende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0311
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The advance of technology and the demand for new features on vehicles has been challenging the automotive industry to find ways to speed up its development process, while increases the robustness and quality of its products. On this context, the embedded software development for vehicles has been directly impacted. In other words, the number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) considerably increased on the past few years and the number of lines of code, as well as their complexity, have been exponentially increased. In order to deal with this new reality, besides the automotive test prototypes used during the development, the automotive industry has been using different virtual environment to develop, verify and validate its products. As an example, we can see an increase in the use of different Hardware In The Loop system architectures (HILs) such as Powertrain HIL (with real Engine and Transmission Control Modules - ECM and TCM) and Vehicle HILs (with real ECM, TCM, several other ECUs, and also several electronic components that composes the vehicle). Each of these options has its…
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Dynamic modeling and simulation of a powertrain system with a six-speed automatic transmission

Schaeffler Brasil Ltda.-Marcel T. da S. de Araujo, Murilo F. Falleiros, Gustavo dos S. Gioria
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0100
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The constant growth of the automotive market demands for comfort to the user and energy efficiency have caused the intensification of the industry researches and development of the automatic transmissions (AT). However, vehicles equipped with these gearboxes entails in higher fuel consumption levels than the one required by vehicles equipped with manual transmission. In the automotive industry due to the advantages offered using computer simulations, such as fast evaluation an optimization, many researchers are using virtual models for optimization of dynamic behavior of systems and fuel consumption. Aiming to study the dynamic behavior of an AT and the influence of its components on that behavior, this paper presents an AT dynamic model developed in MATLAB® / Simulink®. The AT model has three main subsystems: a torque converter model, which includes the dynamic of both the forward flow mode and the reverse flow mode; a Lepelletier gearbox model, composed by a set of three planetary gearsets in parallel, resulting in a six forward speeds gearbox; and a gear-shift schedule, which has the vehicle speed and accelerator…
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Development of Voltage Control Unit Using a Coupled Inductor with a New Structure for Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle

Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Automobile R & D Center-Akitomo Komatsuzaki, Tatsuya Choji
Keihin Corporation-Satoshi Hashino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2311
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Honda has developed an electric powertrain for the new model plug-in hybrid vehicle. In order to realize the EV performance, it was necessary to increase the power output of the high-voltage DC-DC converter to boost the battery voltage (referred to as a “Voltage Control Unit (VCU)” below). An interleaved circuit using the newly developed coupled inductor was employed to reduce the magnetic flux leakage to the exterior as the method of increasing the power density of the VCU. The application of the inductor has increased the continuous power density of the VCU approximately 2.8-fold in comparison with the conventional unit employed in previous Honda hybrids.
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ICE Vehicle Challenge toward Zero Emissions: Future Technology Harmonization in Electrified Powertrain System

TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION-Bungo Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro Umemoto, Seitaro Misawa, Shigemasa Hirooka, Takashi Kawai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2217
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
BEVs and FCEVs are getting more popular since they can contribute to reduce the concern of global warming and the environmental pollution, especially in urban area, they do not emit exhaust gas emissions. In other words, the expectation of a Zero emission society increases. On the other hand, HEVs and PHEVs which have internal combustion engines have realized a drastic reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions thanks to optimal power management of the motor and the engine. They already achieved a great contribution toward CO2 reduction in global level. In order to realize emission free society, this research addresses “Zero-Emissions challenge” of PHEV exhaust gas emissions (to be able to consider equal to BEV in well to wheel), contributing to the global environment pursuing new value for the internal combustion engine. In this investigation, the possibility of the emissions achievement of the 1/10 level of SULEV30 was confirmed by harmonizing new technologies such as optimized combined control of engine and motor, catalyst development, and model based prediction control, which achieved reduction of emissions…
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Development of Electric 4WD System For Compact Hybrid Car

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD-Yasuhiro Konishi, Masahito Taira, Hideaki Ootsuka Tomohiro Ito, Kantaro Yoshimoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2216
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In 2016, NISSAN launched a new electric power train for compact cars that shares the traction system for electric vehicle. NISSAN had utilized this high potential electric powertrain to combine the simple 4WD system, driven by electric motor. In 2002, NISSAN released a simple electric motor driven 4WD system for compact car that converts the engine output to electricity and drives the rear wheels with a direct current (DC) electric motor. This paper describes the system configuration and the value of new driving by combination of electric 4WD and new electric powertrain.
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Active Damping Control of Torsional Vibration in a Diesel Hybrid Powertrain

Tsinghua University-Lei Du, Fuyuan Yang, Yaodong Hu, Liangfei Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2342
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper has designed a real time control algorithm to use ISG motor actively compensate the torque ripple produced by the engine, to reduce torsional vibration. This paper consists of 3 parts. In the first section, this paper has introduced the research object and its modification for experiments. Then the development of control strategy is presented. The engine dynamic model is built, and real-time control with a feedforward unit and a feedback unit is derived. Encoder and cylinder pressure is used for engine torque estimator. Then the ISG motor output the counter-waveform to make the overall output smooth. In order to verify the effectiveness of the control strategy, the final section has established a test bench, where two experiments are carried out. One of the experimental conditions is to set the engine at a constant operating point, while the other is to crank the engine from 0 rpm to idle speed with ISG motor. At constant operating point, speed fluctuation decreases by as much as 79.15%. In terms of vibration index, the vibration is decreased…
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Investigation of a novel leaner fuel spray formation for reducing soot in diffusive diesel combustion- Homogenizing equivalence ratio distribution in the lift-off region -

TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION-Shiro Tanno, Jun Kawakami, Koji Kitano, Takeshi Hashizume
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2273
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Automotive powertrain is diversifying. It is needed to adopt optimal powertrain considering CO2 reduction and convenience for the users. Diesel engines are beneficial from the points of view of thermal efficiency and reliability, but further emission reduction is needed.To reduce soot formation and late combustion, lowering equivalence ratio at the lift-off position, or fuel-rich spray core is thought to be effective. One approach to realize this is by enhancing air introduction from entrainment section (“(1)Increasing entrainment amount”), diluting the entire spray core. In addition to the conventional approach, this study discusses an alternative approach in which entrained air is selectively supplied to over-rich region to homogenize equivalence ratio at lift-off point, (“(2)Homogenization”). The investigations were performed by varying not only injection method like injection pressure or nozzle hole specification, but also fuel properties.Oxygenated fuel investigation revealed that homogenizing equivalence ratio of spray core leads to fast combustion. Furthermore, lowering surface tension investigation revealed that it can shorten break-up length and promote air introduction from entrainment section without higher injection pressure, and it leads to reduce…
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Experimental Investigation of Electric Vehicle Performance and Energy Consumption on Chassis Dynamometer Using Drive Cycle Analysis

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, India-Gananath Doulat Thakre
Indian Institute of Petroleum CSIR, India-Robindro Lairenlakpam
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0002
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This article reports an experimental study carried out to investigate the vehicle performance and energy consumption (EC) of an electric vehicle (EV) on three different driving cycles using drive cycle analysis. The driving cycles are the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC), Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). A new prototype electric powertrain was developed using an indigenous three-phase induction motor (3PIM), Li-ion battery (LiB) pack, vector motor controller, and newly developed mechanical parts. In this research work, a pollution-causing gasoline car (Maruti Zen) was converted into an EV by using the new powertrain. The EV conversion vehicle was used as the test vehicle. After the removal of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) the new powertrain was integrated with the vehicle’s gearbox (GB) system which was configured on a single motor, fixed gear configuration having a gear ratio of 1.28:1. The EV performance tests were carried out on the chassis dynamometer that followed the driving cycles. The maximum speed test showed a top speed of 64 km/h for the EV.…
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