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Future hybrid Vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce Co2 emission

Mercedes-Benz R&D India Pvt Ltd-Chandrakant Palve, Pushkaraj Tilak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2487
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Future hybrid vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce CO2 emission. Chandrakant Palve* Pushkaraj Tilak * * Mercedes-Benz Research & Development India Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore. India. Key Words: 48V, CO2, P3 Hybrid, Electrified powertrain, AMT, emission, shift comfort, motor Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Global automotive industry is putting effort in moving from conventional powertrain technology to hybrid & electric powertrains. This efforts plays a vital role to achieve cleaner environment, improved performance, reduced fossil-fuel dependency, low noise for meeting regulatory & customer requirements. Automotive industry is facing a challenge of meeting stringent CO2 emission targets of 95g & 175g per kilometer for passenger cars & light commercial vehicles respectively. 48V is an important stepping stone in this direction. By taking motivation from this strategic challenge, advanced 48V P3 electrified powertrain technology has been proposed. The objective of this research is a novel electrified powertrain which offers Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) level of shift comfort in combine with CO2 benefit without additional cost and weight penalty. Methodology The present study describes a unique…

Equivalent Radiated Power driven optimization for driveline housings using simulation tools to cut-down the project time

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Hemant Nishad, Dheeraj Singh, Kunal Kamal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2533
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the field of Automotive industry, being competitive makes you succeed. Industry is moving towards advancement day by day. New technologies to improve fuel efficiency, crash resistance, vehicle noise levels have been trending. At VECV, we have traditionally worked on CAE of driveline housings (clutch housing & transmission housing) based on static, dynamic and transient loadings. Currently, weight optimization technique depends on the structural and dynamic loading conditions, but do not consider acoustic concerns. Powertrain housings are highly prone to vibrations and leads to high level of noise. Noise has been constant issue in the casting components associated to driveline. There have been lot of research going on to reduce the level of noise and vibrations in the vehicle driveline, which ultimately leads to fuel efficiency and ergonomic benefits. Low noise generation can also lead to saving of lot of resources deployed to dampen the noises. In order to capture the acoustic responses of the system and to improve the design based on acoustic responses, a comprehensive analysis of newly developed driveline housings (clutch housing…

Estimating drive cycle for E-rickshaws using real world operating scenarios and for overall powertrain improvements.

Ola Electric Mobility Pvt. Ltd.-Nishit Jain, Smit Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2497
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
E-Rickshaws are popular and convenient mode of transportation for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance(<10Km) commute. As per recent reports there are more than 1.5million e-rickshaws plying on Indian roads and approx. 10,000 vehicles are adding every month. Owners of these vehicles are inclined towards the overall range these vehicles can give on a single charge. Range can be improved by using efficient powertrain. Range can also be improved by optimized Battery Management systems and Controllers. Though there are certain evaluation criteria (such as curtailed Indian Drive Cycles) which can be used for efficiency estimations, manufactures are more interested in extending the range in real world scenarios. Hence, availability of real-world drive cycle is imperative. Through this paper, we have attempted to derive a typical drive cycle by collecting road data of various types of e-Rickshaws under different environment conditions. The paper also attempted to present how these derived drive cycle can thus help in powertrain optimization and overall efficiency improvements.

Powertrain topologies for 2 wheelers : From ICE to Electrification

Robert Bosch Engrg & Bus Solutions , Ltd.-Sathyanarayana Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2480
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
As Battery cost is expected to see a Downward trend, Electrification of Powertrain in general is expected to pick up and 2wheeler Market is foreseen to be the Flag bearer in this race towards Electrification. In this paper, we would like to emphasize on the Journey of 2wheelers from Conventional Internal combustion Engine to Electrified Powertrains which we foresee in the future. Methodology: EV - Analysis of OEM strategies and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification. Estimation of current market size of 2Wheeler and segmentation based on different personas. Building survey data based personas around ownership patterns for electric 2Wheelers. Mapping consumer decision process for electric 2Wheelers. Analyse the decision influencers and role of influencers in decision making process. Hybrid - Analysis of different hybrid topologies. Feasibility study via simulation and focus group assessments to evaluate the design. PoC will also be tried to validate the concept. Analysis of real data with simulated results will be done to infer potential of the concept. Results: We are trying to understand the mobility demand and the causes…

Effective Powertrain Isolation of Off-Highway Vehicles

John Deere Technology Center-Devendra Mandke, Balavardhan Reddy Dasabai, Sandeep Burli
Vellore Institute of Technology-Pushpak Sakhala, Sharan Chandran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0106
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Powertrain is one of the major sources of excitation of vehicle vibration and noise in off highway vehicles. It has a great effect on whole vehicle NVH characteristics. The structure borne energy of the powertrain is transmitted to the chassis and rest of the vehicle through powertrain mounts. Hence, it is of prime importance to design an effective powertrain mounting system in such a way that it will reduce vehicle vibrations to improve vehicle NVH as well as ride comfort, resulting in an effective vibration isolation system ensuring long service life. In this paper, a newly developed analytical tool for effective design of isolation system is discussed. For this model, powertrain is considered as a six degree-of-freedom system. Analytical calculations are implemented to find optimum mount design parameters i.e. stiffness, orientation and position of isolators to meet desired NVH targets. To achieve a good isolation characteristic, there is a necessity of decoupling of rigid body modes using optimization of various decoupling method which further helps in reducing the forces transmitted by the powertrain through the…

Design Considerations and Analysis of Electric Microcar for Cities

VNR VJIET-Amjad Shaik, Raju Tappa, Prashanth Kannan, Pavan Bharadwaja Bhaskar, Srinivasa Rao Talluri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0161
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Increasing concerns about environmental issues, such as global warming and pollutant emissions have made increase in energy efficiency and emission reduction a primary concern for automobiles. In addition, the compounding effects of adding personal vehicles, increasing density of road traffic and intensifying parking difficulties are indirectly promoting proliferation of small-size vehicles in large cities. Hence, there is a need to develop a microcar with zero emission. Thus, electric microcar is probably the simplest, green and energy efficient vehicle that relatively affordable and easily manoeuvrable in cities. However, a careful analysis is required in order to properly evaluate the propulsion system component sizing, vehicle dimension, performance and weight. This paper mainly focuses on design options and modelling of electric microcar using hub motors followed by analysis. A two seater electric microcar analytical model using MATLAB has been carried out for sizing of powertrain elements. CAD modelling of tubular frame chassis using solid works followed by analysis using ANSYS is also carried out. A successful deployment of an electric microcar is need of the hour to meet…

Performance Evaluation of an Electric Vehicle with Multiple Electric Machines for Increased Overall Drive Train Efficiency

University of Ljubljana-Mario Vukotić, Damijan Miljavec
University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Laura Tribioli, Daniele Chiappini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0247
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Proposed solutions for electric vehicles range from the simple single-motor drive coupled to one axle through a mechanical differential, to more complex solutions, such as four in-wheel motors, which ask for electronic torque vectoring. Main reasons for having more than one electric machine are: reduction of the rated power of each motor, which most likely leads to simplification and cost reduction of all the electric drive components; increased reliability of the overall traction system, enhancing fault tolerance ability; increase of the degrees of freedom which allows for control strategy optimization and efficiency improvement. In particular, electrical machines efficiency generally peaks at around 75% of load and this usually leads to machine oversizing to avoid operation in low efficiency regions. The same output performance can be achieved by using two or more electrical machines, rather than only one, of smaller size and running them at partial load. In this paper, the performance of an electric vehicle with multiple electric machines is analyzed to assess the potential of overall drive train efficiency increase. In particular, the powertrain…

Modelling and Control of a Novel Clutchless Multiple-Speed Transmission for Electric Vehicles

Mecaprom SRL-Mauro Grandone, Alberto Lega, Michele Pennese
University of Salerno-Ludovica Malafronte, Cesare Pianese
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0063
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Conventional electric vehicles adopt either single-speed transmissions or direct drive architecture in order to reduce cost, losses and mass. However, the integration of optimized multiple-speed transmissions is considered as a feasible method to enhance EVs performances, (i.e. top speed, acceleration and grade climbing), improving powertrain efficiency, saving battery energy and reducing customer costs. Perfectly in line with these objectives, this paper presents a patented fully integrated electric traction system, as scalable solution for electrifying light duty passenger and commercial vehicles (1.5-4.2 tons), with a focus on minibuses (<20 seats). The adoption of high-speed motor coupled to multiple-speed transmission offers the possibility of a relevant efficiency improvement, a 50% volume reduction with respect to a traditional transmission, superior output torque and power density. The proposed clutchless four-speed transmission is specifically conceived and designed to have the good matching with the traction electric motor. Indeed, clutches and synchronizers are not required thanks to the small inertia of the traction motor and its fast regulation in both torque and speed mode (torque modulation process). Therefore, an advanced shifting…

Diesel Vehicle with Ultra-low NOx Emissions on the Road

AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
IAV-Frank Bunar, Joachim Spitta, Andreas Kuhrt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0145
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The paper discusses the technical approach to meet Euro 6d Real-Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements and beyond, with a particular focus on reducing diesel NOx emissions in urban driving situations. Novel technology aspects of the diesel powertrain are an RDE-optimized catalyst system layout to improve both low- and high-load DeNOx performance and a 48V P0-hybrid system. A key element of the powertrain concept is the advanced model based DeNOx control strategy. The optimized exhaust aftertreatment layout combines lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technologies. For maximum low load DeNOx performance, the close-coupled SCR, consisting of an additional slice upstream of an SCR coated on filter, is assisted by an LNT. High load conditions are covered by a 2-stage SCR system with twin AdBlue® dosing. The P0 48V electric motor supports the NOx control in addition to ensuring good driving performance and fuel efficiency. A smart and advanced control strategy is implemented to ensure optimal interaction between all components. The first part of the proposed paper provides a brief summary of Euro 6d and…

A Proposed Diesel Powertrain to Meet Future Emission Standards and Achieve High Engine Efficiency

FPT Motorenforschung AG-Konstantinos Priftis, Apostolos Karvountzis Kontakiotis, Wolfgang Gstrein, Christoph Schuette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0191
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, powertrain development activity is performed on the base of fulfilling the stricter emission standards under real driving conditions (RDE). However, the pressure on automotive industry to reduce CO2 emissions in high efficient diesel applications results in lower exhaust gas temperatures. Therefore, it is highly needed to develop advanced vehicle thermal management methods to both fulfil the targets of emission standards and high thermal efficiency, without increasing dramatically the powertrain cost. The aim of this work is to experimentally demonstrate that by utilising advanced engine and ATS control methods and revising the engine hardware and subsystems can lead to significant improvement on the fuel efficiency and emissions of the conventional diesel powertrain. The revised engine includes an improved combustion system, completely revised turbocharging and air handling system whilst being heavily reworked with respect to FMEP reduction. The aftertreatment employs a closed coupled electrically heated DOC, SCR on filter, NH3 slip catalyst followed by an underfloor SCR and NH3 slip catalyst. The urea dosing system is utilising double urea injection to maximise the overall performance. The…