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Development of the Rig and Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Bench for Evaluating Steering Performance

Hyundai Motor Company-Changsu Kim, Byungrim Lee, Youngdae Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0647
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The development of vehicles faces changes in many future flows. The vehicle’s power transfer systems are being changed from conventional types to Hybrid, Electric and Hydrogen vehicles. At this moment, the technology of EPS (Electric Power Steering) system has been expanding from a simple torque assist system to LKAS(Lane Keeping Assist System), PAP(Park Assist Pilot), ALCAS(Active Lane Change System), ADAS(Advanced Driver Assistance System). A good test bench is necessary for the evaluation of both hardware and control logics of EPS in these complexities of development process. Simultaneous Rig and HILS tests can be performed to check that the steering hardware system can perform to the concept of the development vehicle and develop EPS control logic performances. The hardware performance of the steering system might be evaluated based on measured friction and stiffness, taking into account various driving conditions. And the control logic of the EPS can be evaluated based on the response capability and steering torque measured through the appropriate vehicle model which could represent virtual driving conditions.
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A Path Planning and Model Predictive Control for Automatic Parking System

Jilin University-Xiangxi Meng, Jian Wu, Rui He, Bing Zhu, Jian Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0121
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the increasing number of urban cars, parking has become the primary problem that people face in daily life. Therefore, many scholars have studied the automatic parking system. In the existing research, most of the path planning methods use the combined path of arc and straight line. In this method, the path curvature is not continuous, which indirectly leads to the low accuracy of path tracking. The parking path designed using the fifth-order polynomial is continuous, but its curvature is too large to meet the steering constraints in some cases. In this paper, a continuous-curvature parking path is proposed. The parking path tracker based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is designed under the constraints of the control accuracy and vehicle steering. Firstly, in order to make the curvature of the parking path continuous, this paper superimposes the fifth-order polynomial with the sigmoid function, and the curve obtained has the continuous and relatively small curvature. Therefore, the superposition curve is used as a parallel parking path while the superposition curve and its inverse function curve…
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Vision Based Solution for Auto-Maneuvering of Vehicle for Emerging Market

General Motors Technical Center-Souvik Bose, Ashwani Kumar Singh, D V Ram Kumar Singampalli
General Motors Technical Center India-Chandraprakash lalwani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2517
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Advance Active Safety Systems play a preventive role in mitigating crashes and accidents by providing warning, additional assistance to the driver and maneuverability of vehicle by itself. Some of the features include forward collision warning system and lane departure warning system activate a warning alert when potentially dangerous situations are detected. These active safety features present in developed markets work with Fusion based algorithm combining Radar, Lidar, Camera, Ultrasonic sensor’s input. Application of these algorithms are Intelligent Cruise Control, Collision avoidance, parking assistance, identify pedestrian etc. The complexity of the algorithm, cost of the control unit and road infrastructure are hindrance to emerging market. The solution presented in this paper is towards camera-based solution, describing the method to determine the predictive path, that is obstacle free space and use the predictive space to navigate or steer. This paper focuses on vehicle maneuverability in poor road infrastructure (lane irregularities or no lane marking) by using only cameras.
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Study on Robust Motion Planning Method for Automatic Parking Assist System Based on Neural Network and Tree Search

Tongji University-Fengwei Hu, Hui Chen, Jiren Zhang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Automatic Parking Assist System (APAS) is an important part of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). It frees drivers from the burden of maneuvering a vehicle into a narrow parking space. This paper deals with the motion planning, a key issue of APAS, for vehicles in automatic parking. Planning module should guarantee the robustness to various initial postures and ensure that the vehicle is parked symmetrically in the center of the parking slot. However, current planning methods can’t meet both requirements well. To meet the aforementioned requirements, a method combining neural network and Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is adopted in this work. From a driver’s perspective, different initial postures imply different parking strategies. In order to achieve the robustness to diverse initial postures, a natural idea is to train a model that can learn various strategies. As artificial neural network has outstanding potential in representing and learning knowledge, a neural network is utilized to provide prior knowledge, which is trained through supervised learning by a novel method that imitates human learning style. However, the training accuracy…
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An IMPC Based Parking Assistance System

FinitronX-Qianyu Ouyang, Xianzhe Jia
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarizes progress and outcome from our research projects on IMPC-based parking management system, including parking motion planning and control strategy, as well as a searching strategy for parking spot. IMPC here refers to interactive model predictive control regime, which is characterized in that multiple agents implementing separate MPC strategy are incorporating information about their state, objective, and constraints. To predict future parking parameters, we proposed a practical framework which integrates anticipatory techniques with a model predictive approach that robustly models the stochastic parking environment. The framework is able to take into account the interactions between vehicle subsystems, and can optimize trajectory under complex traffic patterns in real-world scenarios. Adaptive model predictive control is utilized to optimally minimize a cost function regarding performance, energy efficiency and drivability with regard to surrounding vehicle states. Dynamic programming was used to solve the control objective under multiple constraints, which yielded superior performance in comparison with convex programming. An original navigation system was developed for leading user to the parking spot in case of forgetting exact location, which…
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The Sense-itive Side of Autonomous Vehicles

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2019

Kami Buchholz
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP07_07
Published 2019-07-01 by SAE International in United States

BASF is exploring how specific materials-and even paint colors and finishes-can improve the capabilities of AV sensors.

The sensing technologies needed for automated-driving vehicles are evolving as the industry moves toward high-level (SAE Level 4-5) automation. Sophisticated sensors already enable advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) features such as adaptive cruise control, park assist, lane-centering and others.

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Student Concept Vehicle: Development and Usability of an Innovative Holographic User Interface Concept and a Novel Parking Assistance System Concept

BMW Group-Joerg Schulte, Julian Weber
Clemson University-Lauren Mims, Johnell Brooks, Breno Schwambach, Robert Knizek, Casey Jenkins, Mitchell Beckman
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Deep Orange program is a concept vehicle development program focused on providing hands-on experience in design, engineering, prototyping and production planning as part of students’ two-year MS graduate education. Throughout this project, the team was challenged to create innovative concepts during the ideation phase as part of building the running vehicle. This paper describes the usability studies performed on two of the vehicle concepts that require driver interaction.One concept is a human machine interface (HMI) that uses a holographic companion that can act as a concierge for all functions of the vehicle. After creating a prototype using existing technologies and developing a user interface controlled by hand gestures, a usability study was completed with older adults. The results suggest the input method was not intuitive. Participants demonstrated better performance with tasks using discrete hand motions in comparison to those that required continuous motions. The data were helpful to understand the challenges of untrained users interacting with a new HMI system.The second concept is a parking assist system designed to help other drivers. A usability…
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WHAT WE'RE DRIVING

Automotive Engineering: February 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP02_09
Published 2019-02-01 by SAE International in United States

As this month's cover story makes clear, the 2019 Audi e-tron is not an electric screamer. It doesn't redefine ludicrous 0-60-mph acceleration times every time you step on the accelerator. In fact, if you're used to a high-performance Tesla Model X, the e-tron feels decidedly neutered.

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3D Auditory Displays for Parking Assistance Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Luleå University of Technology-André Lundkvist, Roger Johnsson, Arne Nykänen, Jakob Stridfelt
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9627
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to investigate if 3D auditory displays could be used to enhance parking assistance systems (PAS). Objective measurements and estimations of workload were used to assess the benefits of different 3D auditory displays. In today’s cars, PAS normally use a visual display together with simple sound signals to inform drivers of obstacles in close proximity. These systems rely heavily on the visual display, as the sound does not provide information about obstacles' location. This may cause the driver to lose focus on the surroundings and reduce situational awareness. Two user studies (during summer and winter) were conducted to compare three different systems. The baseline system corresponded to a system normally found in today’s cars. The other systems were designed with a 3D auditory display, conveying information of where obstacles were located through sound. A visual display was also available. Both normal parking and parallel parking was conducted. Time taken for parking and the number of obstacles/curb hits were recorded. Participants answered a NASA TLX questionnaire after evaluating each PAS for…
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Chicago Auto Show: All-new 2018 Ford Expedition gets aluminum body, 10-speed

Automotive Engineering: March 2017

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 17AUTP03_09
Published 2017-03-01 by SAE International in United States

When Ford Motor Co. leadership made the bold decision to invest in aluminum body structures for its F-Series pickups, they made sure the Expedition was integrated into the product plan. The resulting 2018 Expedition, unveiled February 7 in Dallas, shows the fruits of that wisdom.

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