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Vision Based Surface Roughness Characterization of Flat Surfaces Machined with EDM.

BSA Crescent Institute of Science & Technology-Mahashar Ali, Siddhi Jailani, Mangalnath Anandan, Vignesh Pavithran
Vellore Institute of Technology-Murugan Mariappan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0148
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Controlling and measuring the surface roughness is an important issue in quality manufacturing. Conventional method of measuring the surface roughness using stylus instrument is an intrusive and contact type hence it is not suitable for online measurement which result, there is an increasing need for a reliable, non-contact method of surface roughness measurement. Over the few years, advances in image processing techniques have provided the basis for developing image based surface roughness measuring techniques. In this investigation, a vision system and image processing tools were used to develop reliable surface roughness characterization technique for Electrical Discharge Machined surfaces. A CMOS camera fitted with zoom 6000 lens system having optical magnification up to 45X and red LED light source were used for capturing images of machined surfaces with different surface roughness values. A signal vector can be generated from image pixel intensity and can be processed using MATLAB software. From the signal vector, the mean and the standard deviations were obtained. The mean of the images signal vector correlates well with the stylus measured roughness parameters…

Development and Investigation of Jute/Linen fibre Reinforced polymer composite.

BSA Crescent Institute of Science & Technology-Arvinda Pandian, Siddhi Jailani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0171
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, hybrid composite with natural fabrics reinforcements and with mineral powder as filler to matrix material is developed. The hand lay-up methodology is employed to fabricate the composite. The composites with and without mineral filler material are developed. The mechanical properties of the composites are assessed. The mechanical properties of composites with and without mineral filler are compared and their result shows that with addition of filler material, the mechanical properties of the composite are affected. Optical microscope is utilized to observe the composite’s morphology.

Optical Spray Investigations on OME3-5 in a Constant Volume High Pressure Chamber

FEV Europe GmbH-Sandra Glueck, Markus Schoenen
RWTH Aachen Univ.-Christian Honecker, Marcel Neumann, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0234
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Synthetic fuels generated with surplus renewable electricity, water and captured CO2, so called E-fuels, offer the possibility to easily store excess energy over long periods of time. Therefore, the ALIGN-CCUS-project seeks to use them for power-generation and as a fuel for the transport-sector. Polyoxymethylene-dimethyl-ethers (POMDMEs, short: OME) are promising E-fuels for passenger-car applications. Their molecular structure is CH3-O-(CH2O)n-CH3. For passenger-car applications, OME-mixtures with n between 3 and 5 seem most suitable, as the mixture is liquid under normal ambient conditions, offers a high cetane-number and sufficient lubricity. Their high flash-point, low toxicity and good miscibility with conventional diesel-fuel also may ease their market-introduction. The lack of direct C-C-bonds within their molecule and the high oxygen-content lead to very low soot-emissions, thus attenuating the NOx-soot-tradeoff through higher EGR-rates which are required for lowest NOx raw-emissions. However, oxygenated fuels such as OME offer a lower heating value and a different evaporation-behavior compared to conventional diesel-fuel. This leads to differences in spray-formation and ignition-delay. In order to determine the mixture formation characteristics and the combustion behavior of neat…

Optical Investigation of Mixture Formation in a Small Bore DISI Engine by Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF)

Technische Univ. Braunschweig-Alexander Pauls, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0133
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Legislative and customer demands in terms of fuel consumption and emissions are an enormous challenge for the development of modern combustion engines. Downsizing in combination with turbocharging and direct injection is one way to increase efficiency and therefore meet the requirements. This results in a reduction of the displacement and thus the bore diameter. The application of direct injection with small cylinder dimensions increases the probability of the interaction of liquid fuel with the cylinder walls, which may result in disadvantages concerning especially particulate emissions. This leads to the question which bore diameter is feasible without drawbacks concerning emissions as a result of wall wetting. The emerging trends towards long-stroke engine design and hybridization make the use of small bore diameters in future gasoline engines a realistic scenario. In the previous project “GDI Boundary Bore” the feasibility of an SI engine with direct injection and small bore diameter was shown by the analyses of two different cylinder head concepts (3V and 4V). For the acquirement of deeper understanding of the mixture formation in such engines…

Optical Evaluation of Directly Injected Methane Using a Newly Developed Highly Repetitive Laser Diagnostics System

Bayreuth Engine Research Center-Mirko Geiger, Lukas Schroeder, Christian Zoellner, Dieter Brueggemann
Goldlücke GmbH-Juergen Goldluecke lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0134
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
New certification procedures like WLTP and RDE, as well as more stringent emission regulations in general, demand for further improvements in engine research and development. In order to meet the challenges of reducing pollutants while maintaining high performance and high efficiency many different approaches are discussed. Beside various concepts for new combustion strategies and alternative fuels, gaining detailed knowledge about the ongoing processes inside engines and combustion chambers during the different operation modes is of major importance. With their influence on combustion and emission formation, fuel injection and mixture formation are playing an important role for further improvements in modern propulsion systems. With the help of optical measurement systems based on laser induced (exciplex) fluorescence (LIF/ LIEF), an advanced understanding of these mechanisms can be obtained. However, additional challenges arise when it comes to analyzing transient engine operation and cyclic fluctuations as well as rating their contribution to the formation of emissions. This study contains the evaluations of the injection and mixture formation inside a rapid compression machine (RCM) with directly injected methane. Equipped with…

Design of an Energy-Efficient Critical Angle Lens Reflector

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34768
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The critical angle lens reflector has commercial applications that supersede ordinary mirrored reflectors. The physics of the critical angle lens reflector are based on the optics principle of total internal reflection. Total internal reflection is characterized as follows: (1) as shown in Figure 2, the light rays are reflected off of the reflecting surface whereby the angle of reflection – with respect to the perpendicular to the reflecting surface – is equal to the angle of incidence of the ray, and (2) the reflection of the light ray takes place with no loss of energy upon reflection.


Integrated Silicon Photonic Switch Demonstrates Lowest Signal Loss Ever in High-Speed Data Transmission

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34770
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Experimental photonic switches developed at UC Berkeley have shown promise toward the goal of fully optical, high-capacity switching for future high-speed data transmission networks. The switch developed and tested for this research demonstrated capabilities not seen before in photonic switches. Key to this success, is the scale-up of a 240 × 240 integrated silicon photonic switch. The device is so-named because it accepts 240 optical communication input channels and sends them into 240 output channels.


More Sensitive Measurement of Semiconductor Material Quality

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34727
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Accurately measuring semiconductor properties of materials in small volumes helps engineers determine the range of applications for which these materials may be suitable in the future, particularly as the size of electronic and optical devices continues to shrink. A measurement technique was developed that is capable of achieving this level of sensitivity.


Laser Diode Based on Organic Semiconductors

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34801
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have demonstrated that a long-elusive kind of laser diode based on organic semiconductors is indeed possible, paving the way for the further expansion of lasers in applications such as biosensing, displays, healthcare, and optical communications.


Key Trends in Custom Optics for Aerospace

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34774
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The convergence of “new” materials, improved free-form shape fabrication, and changes in the aerospace marketplace has transformed the previously static field of custom optics into a very dynamic market segment. In this article, we examine the impact of four key trends that characterize this changing landscape.