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Study of thermal efficiency improvement by multi-hole nozzle

Hino Motors Ltd-hiroshi Nakajima
Hino Motors Ltd.-Yoshihiro Funayama, Mori Ishii
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0304
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A truck and bus transportation which support logistics and people, diesel engines are highly expected to have high thermal efficiency and low exhaust emissions over the next few decades. Effective methods to achieve even higher thermal efficiency are to reduce a cooling loss from combustion chamber wall. A multi-hole diesel injector has a significant impact on improving engine thermal efficiency by enhancing a combustion activity and reducing a cooling loss. In this study, two types of diesel injectors – 8-hole and 14-hole - with the same flow rate were tested under heavy-duty diesel engine condition. Heat release rate, energy balance and engine emissions were investigated using the single-cylinder engine with displacement of 1,478 cc. Furthermore, an optical engine was used to observe quantitative spray penetration and flame development from shadowgraph imaging and analyze flame temperature by a two-color method. The results of the single-cylinder engine showed that the 14-hole injector exhibited higher indicated thermal efficiency thanks to lower cooling loss than 8-hole results. However, we observed a slightly higher exhaust loss in the case of…
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Digital Image Correlation Based Real-Time fatigue feedback System Study

Oakland Univ-Wan Xu, Rong Wang, Wen MA, Lianxiang Yang
Oakland Univ.-Boyang Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0539
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue testing is a specialized form of mechanical testing that is performed by applying cyclic loading to a coupon or structure. Two common forms of fatigue testing are load controlled high cycle and strain controlled low cycle fatigue. Some strain measurement device, such as extensometer, strain gage, that are often used as a feedback sensor on strain controlled fatigue test. However, in applications where strain controlled fatigue testing could face some extreme conditions as well as high temperature and unusual sizing which requires the strain measurement to be nondestructive and full field. While digital image correlation (DIC), an advanced optical measurement technique, has a decent solution on challenges of fatigue testing measurement. The problem is how to turn DIC from a measurement system to a feedback controller unit. Due to the developments in camera and computation techniques, the sequential process can now be performed as a parallel process. That means while the images are streamed from the camera to the computer the correlation and reconstruction can be performed at the same time. In this way…
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Optical characterization of the combustion process inside a large-bore dual-fuel two-stroke marine engine by using multiple high-speed cameras

Lund Univ-Alexios Matamis
Lund University-Mattias Richter
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0788
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Dual-fuel engines for marine propulsion are gaining in importance due to operational and environmental benefits. Here the combustion in a dual-fuel marine engine operating on diesel and natural gas is studied using a multiple high-speed camera arrangement. By recording the natural flame emission from three different directions the flame position inside the engine cylinder can be spatially mapped and tracked in time. Through space carving a rough estimate of the three-dimensional (3D) flame contour can be obtained. From this contour properties like flame length and height, as well as ignition locations can be extracted. The multi-camera imaging is applied to a dual-fuel marine two-stroke engine with a bore diameter of 0.5 m and a stroke of 2.2 m. Both liquid and gaseous fuels are directly injected at high pressure, using separate injection systems. Optical access is obtained using borescope inserts, resulting in a minimum disturbance to the cylinder geometry. In this type of engine, with fuel injection from positions at the rim of the cylinder, the flame morphology becomes asymmetric. The optical spatial mapping and…
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Tracking Panel Movement during Stamping Process using Advanced Optical Technology

Oakland Univ-bicheng Guo, xiaowan zheng, Lianxiang Yang, BOYANG Zhang, Rong Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0541
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The metal panel is comprehensively applied in the automotive industry. A significant issue for the metal panel is the deflection when did the movement in the press line of the stamping process. Unpredictable deflection could result in the cut off of press line. In order to control the deflection in a safe zone, Finite element tools are used to simulate the panel transform process. However, the simulation needs experimental validation where conventional displacement measurement techniques could not satisfy the requirement of vast filed displacement and accuracy point tracking. In this study, multi-camera digital image correlation (DIC) systems have been developed to track a panel movement in the press line of the stamping process. There are some advantages for applying the DIC system, which is non-contact, full-field, high accuracy, and direct measurement techniques that provide the evaluation displacement of the metal panel and press line. Nevertheless, the traditional stereo DIC system (with two cameras) has a limited field of view, and the multi-camera DIC system expands the field of view and enables the measurement of panel…
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Convergent technology with artificial general intelligence for accelerating virtual meetings in transport emergency situations

Institute of Control Sciences of RAS-Alexander Raikov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0726
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper addresses the issue of speeding up virtual meetings responding to transport-related emergency situations by applying a unique convergent approach that ensures purposefulness and sustainability of holding the meetings. They must be held efficiently facilitated first of all in order to avoid wrong diagnoses of motor-related injuries because of their ultimate aim being to remove threats to health and life. Several groups of representatives of various services and observers are allowed to participate in those meetings. A number of ill decisions have a tendency to increase if a meeting is conducted with remote experts in a certain networked environment where the participants are out of eye contact with each other. The convergent technology creates special structural conditions that help effectively accomplish goals. It transforms divergent process of brainstorming and conversations into convergent processes. It allows for holding several group meetings simultaneously and creates an agreed strategy of actions for all participants. The approach is based on the inverse problem-solving method in topological space, cognitive modeling, genetic algorithms and elements of the artificial general intelligence…
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Importance of Turbulence-chemistry Interactions in Predicting Spray A End of Injection Phenomenon

Univ. of Oxford-Xiaohang Fang
University of Oxford-Riyaz Ismail, Nikola Sekularac, Martin Davy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0779
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the role of turbulence-chemistry interaction in diesel spray auto-ignition, flame stabilisation and end of injection phenomenon is investigated under engine relevant Spray A conditions. A recently developed diesel spray combustion modelling approach, conditional source-term estimation (CSE-FGM), is coupled with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation (RANS) framework to study the details of spray combustion. The detailed chemistry mechanism is included in this approach through the flamelet generated manifold (FGM) method. Both unsteady and steady flamelet solutions are included in the manifold to account for the auto-ignition process and subsequent flame propagation in a diesel spray. Conditionally averaged chemical source terms are closed by the conditional scalars obtained in the CSE routine. Both non-reacting and reacting spray jets are computed over a wide range of Engine Combustion Network (ECN) diesel Spray A conditions. The reacting results are compared with simulations using homogeneous reactor combustion model and flamelet combustion model with the same chemical mechanism. The present study represents the first application of CSE for a diesel spray. The non-reacting liquid/vapour penetration, the mean and rms mixture…
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Comparative Analysis between a Barrier Discharge Igniter and a Streamer-type Radio-Frequency Corona Igniter in an Optically Accessible Engine in Lean Operating Conditions

Federal-Mogul Powertrain Tenneco Group-Stefano Papi, Massimo Dal Re
Universita degli Studi di Perugia-Valentino Cruccolini, Gabriele Discepoli, Federico Ricci, Luca petrucci, Carlo Grimaldi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0276
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Among plasma-assisted ignition technologies, the Radio-Frequency (RF) corona family represents an interesting solution for the ability to extend the engine operating range. These systems generate transient, non-thermal plasma, which is able to enhance the combustion onset by means of thermal, kinetic and transport effects. Streamer-type RF corona discharge, at about 1 MHz, ignites the air-fuel mixture in multiple filaments, resulting in many different flame kernels. The main issue of this system is that at high electrode voltage and low combustion chamber pressure a transition between streamer and arc easily occurs: in this case transient plasma benefits are lost. A barrier discharge igniter (BDI), supplied with the same RF energy input, instead, is more breakdown-resistant, so that voltage can be raised to higher levels. In this work, a streamer-type RF corona igniter and a BDI were tested in a single-cylinder optical engine fueled with gasoline. Combustion behavior was characterized at stable, near-stable and unstable conditions (depending on IMEP coefficient of variation), increasing the air-fuel ratio starting from a near-stoichiometric mixture. For each test point the maximum…
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Advancements in Thermoplastic Optical Materials for Automotive Lighting Systems

Arkema Inc.-Altuglas International-Brian Cromer, Laura Thoma, Noah Macy, Charles Rissel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0634
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Optical materials strongly influence the performance and efficiency of automotive lighting systems. In particular, LED signature headlight design motifs such as dispersion optics and light pipes comprise long optical path lengths, which require homogeneous color distribution and light extraction with minimal attenuation. Unfortunately, conventional thermoplastic optical materials are not suitable for long path length (LPL) applications, as they often lack sufficient light transmission, absorption coefficient and/or heat resistance for LPL optics. In this presentation, we will demonstrate strategies to maximize performance and efficiency of automotive lighting systems, using new acrylic resins optimized for LPL optics. Through practical examples, we will show how strategic improvements to absorption coefficient and spectral uniformity significantly reduce light attenuation, while increasing power efficiency and color uniformity in LPL optics. Additionally, we will outline thermal and physical material properties relevant to the design, engineering, and manufacturing of thermoplastic LPL optics. Finally, we will discuss the importance of outdoor stability, UV-weathering resistance, and chemical resistance for maintaining efficient long-term performance, and in the case of signature lighting, preserving the vehicle brand identity…
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Optical study on the fuel spray characteristics of high-pressure isobaric combustion using four consecutive injections

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Ramgopal Sampath PhD, Priybrat Sharma, Gustav Nyrenstedt, Abdullah AlRamadan, Moez Ben Houidi, Bengt Johansson, Gaetano Magnotti
King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Qinglong Tang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1129
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High-pressure isobaric combustion using the double compression expansion concept was proposed to obtain higher brake thermal efficiency than the conventional diesel combustion. Experiments in metal engines have shown that four consecutive injections delivered by a single injector can achieve isobaric combustion. Improved understanding of the detailed fuel-air mixing with multiple consecutive injections is needed to optimize the isobaric combustion and reduce engine emissions. In this study, we explored the fuel spray characteristics of the four consecutive injections strategy using fuel-tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging on a heavy-duty optical engine under non-reactive condition. Toluene of 2% by volume was added into the n-heptane fuel and served as the tracer. The fourth harmonic of a 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser was applied for excitation of toluene. One of the fuel sprays was bisected by the vertical laser sheet and visualized by a camera from the side view. The PLIF images of the premixed mixture formed by port fuel injection were used to normalize the direct-injection PLIF images and correct the effect of non-uniformity of the laser sheet.…
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Analysis of Dashcam Video for Determination of Vehicle Speed

Trinity University-Jack Leifer, Alvaro Marquez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0877
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Using video footage to extract accurate vehicle speed data is often difficult when the available video comes from cameras whose optical parameters are not known. One means of overcoming such difficulties lies in the use of visible landmarks within a video frame whose three-dimensional locations and geometry can be determined. For certain dashcam videos, such information can be extracted from Google Earth and used for image calibration. In this work, we used a commercial videogrammetry software tool (Photomodeler Standard) with Google Earth, using video from just one camera to determine vehicle speed. Once the global origin has been selected (corresponding to the initial 3D camera position where video stream begins), the three-dimensional positions of identifiable features are located in the first image relative to that global origin. While the absolute position of the camera changes with each successive image of the video stream, its location relative to the image frame remains the same while the tracked feature locations progress downward. Conversely, the position of each identified feature (relative to the global origin) remains stationary in…