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Strategy for Optimizing an F1 Car’s Performance based on FIA Regulations

Oxford Brookes University-Karan Bopaiah, Stephen Samuel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0545
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of the V6 engines in Formula 1, in 2014, the sport aimed to close the gap between the automotive engine and high-performance motorsport engines in the area of fuel economy. A set of very challenging engineering regulations were introduced by the FIA to restrict the power from the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), while allowing for more power to be harvested through energy recovery systems. Although progress has been made in developing a highly efficient powertrain, the limit to which this system can be pushed to is still unknown due to a significant gap between the technological choices available and the optimal control strategy used. This study investigated an engine-powertrain model of an F1 car with real world driver data for estimating the vehicle’s full throttle performance. The work used engine and drive-cycle simulation-modeling tools to build a representative car model which complied with the 2019 FIA regulations, in conjunction with real world data to identify the most critical parameter such as the gear shift strategy and the maximum energy recovered, stored and…
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Aerodynamic Design and Analysis of a Formula SAE Drag Reduction System (DRS)

University of Manitoba-David J. Penner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0685
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Formula SAE vehicles, like many other vehicles within the realm of motorsport, often employ rear mounted aerodynamic devices to improve cornering performance, these devices can however have a significant amount of aerodynamic drag. Additional speed can be gained by reducing the impact of the rear wing on the straightaways of the track through the use the aptly named Drag Reduction System (DRS), which works by reducing the angle of attack of the rear wing flap(s). A DRS can however introduce other performance losses, including the losses from having a gap between the rear wing flaps and endplate to prevent friction, the potential to stall the rear wing from improper opening angles of the flaps, and from the wake of the DRS actuator if positioned in front of the airfoils. An additional concern is the time it takes for the rear wing performance to return upon DRS deactivation, which will affect how long before corner entry the driver must disable the system. Insight into each of these problems as well as the optimum opening angles was…
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Prodrive, Volta Trucks develop electric truck for urban driving

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2020

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 20TOFHP02_10
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

Mention the name Prodrive and most people will think of motorsport together with all the advanced technology that goes with it. But as an automotive consultancy, the company is now applying its capabilities to an advanced pureelectric truck project that has an added design aspect: to keep vulnerable road users safer in crowded environments.

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Design and optimization of the intake system of a Formula SAE race engine

Federal University of Santa Maria-Pedro Carvalho, Alexandre Piccini, Aleff Goulart, Felipe Balbom, Alice Müller, Thompson Lanzanova, Mario Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0253
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Several motorsport competitions impose restrictions on intake systems to limit maximum engine power. Since the restriction interferes with the efficiency of the intake system as a whole, it is necessary to study ways to minimize the negative effect of changes in engine performance. In practice, the regulation imposes restrictions to the inlet air which motivates the search for the minimum pressure loss in the restrictor while maintaining an equal volumetric efficiency between the cylinders. This way, it is necessary to tune the duct lengths and diameters, and plenum volume to obtain the maximum volumetric efficiency in the most required speeds. Formula SAE competition imposes an intake system restriction of 20 mm or 19 mm diameter (for gasoline or ethanol fueled engines, respectively). Thus, to reduce pressure loss in the imposed restriction orifice, a system with a convergent divergent duct forming a venturi tube was used. This venturi was designed to maximize its discharge coefficient to increase engine volumetric efficiency. Considering that the focus of motorsport competitions is performance, this paper presents a method to minimize…
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Motorcycle Terminology

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3133_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The motorcycle terminology presented herein addresses two-wheel single track vehicles, as well as motorized three wheel cycles. Although two-wheeled, single track scooters and mopeds are similar to traditional motorcycles, they have many characteristics which differentiate them from motorcycles, and while some terms will apply, this Terminology addresses motorcycles specifically, unless otherwise noted. Likewise, some three wheel cycles may have some similar design features and share components with motorcycle, the dynamics and handling of three wheel vehicles differs from two wheel, single track motorcycles. The terminology presents definitions covering the following subjects: dynamics and handling of single track vehicles, motorcycle categories and types, motorcycle crash dynamics and technology, and in-depth crash investigations, motorcycle design and components, systems, and equipment, motorcycle operation, operational environments and hazards, rider protective equipment including helmets and clothing, rider behaviors, motorcycle safety, competitive motorcycle events and the specialized motorcycles used those events, key national motorcycle-related organization, selected phrases commonly used uniquely by motorcyclists, and related performance measures and selected test criteria. NOTE: Motorcycle emission terminology does not vary from automobile emission terminology…
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Computational Analysis of Flap Camber and Ground Clearance in Double-Element Inverted Airfoils

Delhi Technological University-Vishesh Kashyap, Sourajit Bhattacharjee
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
Drag and lift are the primary aerodynamic forces experienced by automobiles. In competitive automotive racing, the design of inverted wings has been the subject of much research aimed at improving the performance of vehicles. In this direction, the aerodynamic impact of change in maximum camber of the flap element and ground effect in a double-element inverted airfoil was studied. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4412 airfoil was taken as the constant main element. The camber of the flap element was varied from 0% to 9%, while ground clearance was varied from 0.1c to 1.0c. A two-dimensional (2D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study was performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model in ANSYS Fluent 18.2 to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Parameters such as drag coefficient, lift coefficient, pressure distribution, and wake flow field were investigated to present the optimum airfoil configuration for high downforce and low drag. It was observed that while an increase in flap camber improves the lift coefficient substantially, this change is dependent on the angle of attack…
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Fine Tuning the SST k − ω Turbulence Model Closure Coefficients for Improved NASCAR Cup Racecar Aerodynamic Predictions

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

University of North Carolina-Chen Fu, Charles Bounds, Mesbah Uddin, Christian Selent
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0641
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Faster turn-around times and cost-effectiveness make the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation approach still a widely utilized tool in racecar aerodynamic development, an industry where a large volume of simulations and short development cycles are constantly demanded. However, a well-known flaw of the RANS methodology is its inability to properly characterize the separated and wake flow associated with complex automotive geometries using the existing turbulence models. Experience suggests that this limitation cannot be overcome by simply refining the meshing schemes alone. Some earlier researches have shown that the closure coefficients involved in the RANS turbulence modeling transport equations most times influence the simulation prediction results. The current study explores the possibility of improving the performance of the SST k − ω turbulence model, one of the most popular turbulence models in motorsports aerodynamic applications, by re-evaluating the values of certain model closure constants. A detailed full-scale current generation NASCAR Cup racecar was used for the investigation. The simulations were run using a commercial CFD package STAR-CCM+ (version 13.04.010). Five different closure coefficients in the SST…
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Advanced Connector Technologies: From Aerospace to Racecars to Robots

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33713
Published 2019-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Different types of motion encountered in dynamic environments require designers to specify connectors for boards, wiring, and devices that can meet significant g-forces, vibrations, and weight challenges. Advanced connectors designed to handle dynamic forces were introduced in the 1970s to meet the needs of aerospace applications. In the early 1990s, the extreme speed and vibration in Formula One, NASCAR, Indycar, and Le Mans cars inspired the development of advanced interconnection solutions for autosports.

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Mahle MJI technology sparking ignition advances

Automotive Engineering: July/August 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP08_07
Published 2019-01-01 by SAE International in United States

Engine-development supplier Mahle believes pre-chamber combustion technology for production gasoline engines has a promising future.

Any technology transfer between the racetrack and the road is usually a one-way street, with motor racing leading and humble production machinery way back on the innovative grid. But just occasionally, there is a role reversal-and Mahle Powertrain demonstrates it with its pre-chamber Jet Ignition (MJI) system.

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EDITORIAL: The future of motorsports is…quiet

Automotive Engineering: July/August 2019

Editor-in-Chief-Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP08_09
Published 2019-01-01 by SAE International in United States

Perched up on jackstands, its fat Michelin-shod wheels removed, the Audi e-tron FE05 looks like a multicolored shark out of water. Mechanics are swirling around this battery-electric race car, preparing it for a practice session during the Brooklyn E-Prix-the final race of the 2019 FIA Formula E championship season in New York.

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