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Industrial and Agricultural Disc Wheels

MTC8, Tire and Rim
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J712_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-25 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a selection of disc wheels for industrial and agricultural application with a maximum of interchangeability. This is accomplished by establishing five groups of disc wheels, in each of which the hub mounting elements are common. These groups are designated 4 bolt, 5 in bolt circle; 5 bolt, 4.5 in bolt circle; 5 bolt, 5.5 in bolt circle; 6 bolt, 6 in bolt circle; and 8 bolt, 8 in bolt circle. Further, this document establishes an SAE part number and the maximum rated radial load for each standard wheel. In addition, the document requires the wheel manufacturer's name or trademark to be impression stamped on the wheel with location at the discretion of the manufacturer.
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Motorcycle Terminology

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3133_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The motorcycle terminology presented herein addresses two-wheel single track vehicles, as well as motorized three wheel cycles. Although two-wheeled, single track scooters and mopeds are similar to traditional motorcycles, they have many characteristics which differentiate them from motorcycles, and while some terms will apply, this Terminology addresses motorcycles specifically, unless otherwise noted. Likewise, some three wheel cycles may have some similar design features and share components with motorcycle, the dynamics and handling of three wheel vehicles differs from two wheel, single track motorcycles. The terminology presents definitions covering the following subjects: dynamics and handling of single track vehicles, motorcycle categories and types, motorcycle crash dynamics and technology, and in-depth crash investigations, motorcycle design and components, systems, and equipment, motorcycle operation, operational environments and hazards, rider protective equipment including helmets and clothing, rider behaviors, motorcycle safety, competitive motorcycle events and the specialized motorcycles used those events, key national motorcycle-related organization, selected phrases commonly used uniquely by motorcyclists, and related performance measures and selected test criteria. NOTE: Motorcycle emission terminology does not vary from automobile emission terminology…
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Preliminary Study of LIDAR Scanner-Based Collision Avoidance in Automated Guided Systems for Autonomous Power Equipment Products

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Honda R & D Americas, Inc.-Toshiyuki Hasegawa
Honda R&D Americas, Inc.-Jeff Wians
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0032
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Technology is continuously being developed to prevent self-driving vehicles from crashing. That technology could also be considered for other autonomous products. Collision avoidance in automated guided systems using a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) scanner has been studied for application in low-speed autonomous Honda Power Equipment products, such as self-driving lawn mowers. The automotive application of a LIDAR scanner for autonomous driving is used for obstacle detection and offline local area. Such delineations do not exist in areas where power equipment is used, such as grass fields; therefore, identifying object height and distance is a relatively new area. For this study, a small LIDAR scanner with a resolution of 0.01 m and a measurement range of 0.05 to 40.00 m was used on a Honda self-driving lawn mower. The measurement distance data was directly processed in the scanner, enabling the drive unit to obtain distance information during actual operation. Based on real-time data, collision avoidance and automated operation guidance could be achieved. Simplified object detection and an automated guided decision-making system were developed. System parameters…
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Kohler engineers new 5400 engines for lower NVH, easier start-ups

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2017

Matthew Borst
  • Magazine Article
  • 17TOFHP12_10
Published 2017-12-01 by SAE International in United States

For lawn tractor applications, easy-starting and smooth-operating engines are key to user satisfaction. Wisconsin-based engine and power systems manufacturer Kohler has announced an all-new 5400 Series engine line purpose-built to address these mower ergonomic attributes. The single-cylinder, OHV engine line includes models from 17 to 19.5 hp (12.7 to 14.5 kW) and includes brand-new features for the riding lawn-equipment market.

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Lubricants for Two-Stroke-Cycle Gasoline Engines

Fuels and Lubricants TC 1 Engine Lubrication
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1510_201705
  • Current
Published 2017-05-25 by SAE International in United States
The information in this SAE Recommended Practice has been compiled by Technical Committee 1 (Engine Lubrication) of the SAE Fuels and Lubricants Division. The intent is to provide those concerned with the design and maintenance of two-stroke-cycle engines with a better understanding of the properties of two-stroke-cycle lubricants. Reference is also made to test procedures which may be used to measure the chemical and physical characteristics of these lubricants.
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Two-Stroke Engine Cleanliness via a Fuel Additive

Lubrizol Corporation-Garrett Parker, Stuart Bartley, Michael Nicholls
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
Two-stroke engine keep-clean data is presented to demonstrate the deposit removal capabilities of a premium fuel additive. In this testing, the fuel additive was added as a top-treatment to a 50:1 blended fuel-oil mixture. Engine testing was conducted on an EchoTM SRM-265 (25.4 cc) string trimmer run under a standardized test cycle. Test measurements included piston deposits, ring deposits, and exhaust port blockage. In addition, a more complete data set was analyzed and several variables were investigated including: different base gasoline fuels, ethanol level (E0 and E10), additive dose (none, low, and high), and fuel stabilizer dose (none and high). Post-test inspection of engine parts using fuel additives showed a high level of clean surfaces, which maintained the engine at its original performance.
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Experimental Investigations Regarding the Potential of an Electronic Ignition Timing Control for a Lawn Mower Engine

Andreas Stihl AG & Co KG-Jan-Philipp Banzhaf, Tim Gegg
Graz University of Technology-Michael Zisser, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Reinhard Stelzl, Bernhard Schweighofer, Hannes Wegleiter, Stephan Schmidt
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
In order to fulfill future regulations regarding emissions and CO2 reduction, the small engine market inclines to migrate from carburetor systems to cleaner, more efficient electronic ignition controls and electronic fuel injection systems. When implementing such mechatronic systems in small engine applications, one has to consider specific boundary conditions like the lack of relevant sensors, limited possibilities in terms of space and of course the necessity to keep the costs as low as possible. Especially in the non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) segment, the absence of sensors makes it difficult to apply standard electronic control systems, which are based on engine related input signals provided by sensors. One engine related signal, which is even provided by the simplest engine setup, is some form of the crankshaft speed since it is essential for the functionality of the engine. In this paper, the potential of an electronic ignition timing control system based on this signal as well as experimental experiments are presented. A single cylinder lawn mower SI engine is used for the experiments, since it is representative…
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Development of a GPS-Enabled Compact Data Logger to Evaluate Small Engine Usage in Actual Applications

Honda R&D Americas, Inc.-Andrew Bejcek
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
In the process of developing small general purpose engines, it is necessary to obtain accurate engine usage information. Commercially available measurement systems created for this purpose have unfavorable characteristics, including limited flexibility and large physical size. A compact data logging device was developed to overcome these limitations, and it was used on several lawn mowers. A microcontroller controls the data logger and acquires data. The data logger also includes a vacuum pressure sensor, tachometer input, thermocouple inputs, and a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver. The GPS receiver is used to provide machine position and velocity data, which is synchronized with the other measurements. The housing is compact (54 mm x 124 mm x 100 mm), so it can be mounted on most small engine-powered products. Setup of the data logger requires no significant engine or machine modifications, which reduces the time required to instrument a product for testing. Since the data logger is simple and compact, it was possible to deploy several loggers concurrently in different geographic regions. The acquired data was used to quantify…
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Ethanol and Castor Oil for Two-Stroke and Wankel Engines

Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais - PUC Minas-Bernardo Luiz Harry Diniz Lemos, Eduardo Abreu Salomão, Matheus Philipe Ribeiro Viana, Rogério Jorge Amorim
Published 2016-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Two-stroke engines are used in several purposes, such as lawn mowers, chainsaws, power generators and for motorcycles in some dirt tracks competitions. In addition, small Wankel engines are used in snowmobiles, motorized paragliders and range extenders. Both types of engines are known for the great power produced per displacement, ideal for the purposes aforementioned, but its bigger emissions due to lubricating oil mixed with fossil fuels, such as gasoline, do not pass legislation's standards, which limits their use. In order to reduce emissions, tests with ethanol and castor oil, eco-friendly fuel and lubricant, respectively, will be presented to adequate these organic compounds to the engine's operation.
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Variable-Aperture Reciprocating Reed Valve

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-25182
Published 2016-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center engineers have developed a new reed valve for controlling fluid flow back and forth between two chambers. The VARR valve provides two-way flow that is proportional to flow demand. As the pressure gradient builds on one side, the reed valve responds by opening an amount that is proportionate to the gradient, or demand, allowing bidirectional flow. Some mechanical and fluid systems that rely on the controlled flow of fluids between chambers will benefit from the new design. Compared to current fixed-orifice devices, VARR may expand the performance envelope by offering a more continuous flow response in applications in which the pressure environment is constantly changing. Proportional two-way flow can enable a fine-tuned system response to pressure building on one side of the valve. In these changing gradient conditions, the reed valve is better than fixed-sized orifices, which are optimized for one flow condition and are likely to over- or under-restrict flow for all other flow gradients.