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Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Vijayanta Ahuja, Aditya Gautam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2427
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings. Concluding the fact that there are various aspects of environmental degradation henceforth we start by picking one of the hazards trying to execute a method to resolve every respective issue on a micro level, thus eliminating maximum threats onto the environment.…
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Corrosion Characteristics on Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar AA2014/AA6061 Alloy for Automobile Application

Bannari Amman Institute of Technology-Sadhasivam Deepankumar, Anbalagan Ramakrishnan, Dinesh Dhanabalan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Govindasamy Rajamurugan, Prabu Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0063
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a widely used solid state welding process in which its heats metal to the below recrystallization temperature due to frictional force. FSW mostly avoids welding defects like hot cracking and porosity which are mainly occur in conventional welding techniques. In this process the combination of frictional force and the mechanical work provide heating the base metal to get defect free weld joints. Aluminium Alloys 2014 and 6061 are generally used in a wide range of automobile applications like Engine valves and tie rod, shipbuilding, and aerospace due to their high corrosion resistance, lightweight, and good mechanical properties. In the present work, aluminium alloys of AA6061 and AA2014 were effectively welded by friction stir welding technique. The tool rotational speed, travel speed, and tool profile are the important parameters in FSW process. High Speed Steel (HSS) tool with Hexagonal profile is used for this joining. The tool rotational speed is varied form 700, 1000 and 1400 rpm and the travel speed is varied from 25, 30 and 50 mm/min. From the…
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Mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Metals of Monel 400 and SS 321 by Using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process

Geethanjali College of Engg. and Tech.-Sudarshan Rikka, Devaiah Malkapuram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0141
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the present study the fabrication of joints between the nickel base alloys and steels of various grades have been under taken, joining of these metals has assumed new importance by virtue of their widespread in nuclear and aerospace applications. Such joints provide excellent strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the study of weldability, and mechanical properties of weld joints of two different alloys such as nickel based alloy- monel 400 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. The joining of the similar and dissimilar metals is carried out by GTAW process and by employing two different types of filler rods SS321 and ERNiCrMo-3, Mechanical properties such as Ultimate Tensile Strength, Young’s Modulus ae found as per ASTM testing standards, Percentage of Elongation also found to know the joint efficiency and Microhardness survey across the weld joint to estimate the hardness variations at different locations such as Weld zone of the metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), and Base metal.
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Metallurgical and Wear Behaviour of Stellite 6 Reinforced Stainless Steel 316 Joints by Nd-YAG Laser Welding Process

BSACIST-Varun Kumar Arulvizhi, Selvakumar Alandur Somasundaram, Balasrinivasan Murugan, Ravikumar Natarajan
Renault & Nissan-Abdur Rahman Kalam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0147
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Laser welding process is a most effective and predominant method for joining of steel alloys when compared with other welding processes in practice due to their precise control of laser source across the bonding zone where it is crucial to control in other joining processes. In common the austenitic steels differ from ferritic based on two factors, thermal conductivity and expansion. Here, the selected Nd-YAG laser setup for joining of similar base material stainless steel 316 which is reinforced with and without stellite 6 powders. The experimental investigations (metallurgical survey and wear characteristics) were performed on all the samples. The powders were reinforced in the material directly by performing a drill across the bond line instead of a normal coating process which is in practice, later the powders were stuffed through the holes. Totally four samples were processed by varying the process parameters such as laser power (W), laser frequency (Hz) and keeping the time (s), feeding rate (mm/s) as constant. During the joining process the powders will get solidified with the molten steel alloy.…
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Advances in Laser Welding of Stainless Steel Alloys

BSACIST-Varun Kumar Arulvizhi, Selvakumar Alandur Somasundaram, Mohammed Haareeskhan Niyaz, Pradeep Krishna Ranganathan, Afnan Zaid Moolai, Mohamed Ashfaq Ahmed Abdulla Burhanudeen, Mohan Raj Ramu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0056
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
As a fusion welding process, Laser welding has proven to be the most promising method for joining of different materials whether it can be either a similar or dissimilar material category. However, few complications still remain unanswered in joining of materials by laser process after successful implementation of laser’s by industries and also the commercial users in previous year’s such as workpiece preparation, fixture issues, atmospheric conditions, nozzle focus on the material, etc., This article will give an elaborate survey on joining of stainless steel alloys, though there are many factors to be considered here concentration is on the metallurgical behaviour and tensile properties of weldments joined by laser welding technique, because the main criteria for a weldment is to have a coarse grain boundary distribution which may be distorted due to high heat generation during a joining process and to possess good tensile strength in order to withstand the impacts given on the weldment when it is being practically deployed in usage. The material behavior of weldment is primarily based on the process parameters…
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Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Corrosion Characteristics of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6

Assistant Professor-Deepankumar S
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0175
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a quite new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and adaptable. In particular, it can be used to join high- strength Aluminium alloys and other metallic alloys that are difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding. Friction Stir Welding heats metal to the temperature below re crystallization. FSW avoids welding defects like porosity and hot cracking which are frequently in conventional welding techniques due to alloy’s very low re- crystallization temperature and higher heat dissipating nature. This process combining deformation heating and mechanical work to obtain high defect free joints. Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 is generally used in various industrial applications such as automobile, ship building and aerospace due to their light weight, good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance. In the present study, aluminum alloy 7075-T6 was successfully made by friction stir welding technique. The Corrosion, micro structure analysis and mechanical behavior of the welded joints were investigated at different welding parameters.
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Advanced Assembly Solutions for the Airbus RACER Joined-Wing Configuration

University of Nottingham-David Bainbridge, Konstantinos Bacharoudis, Andrea Cini, Alison Turner, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Rapid And Cost Effective Rotorcraft (RACER) is being developed by Airbus Helicopters (AH) to demonstrate a new Vertical Take-Off and Landing configuration to fill the mobility gap between conventional helicopters and aeroplanes. RACER is a compound rotorcraft featuring wings and multiple rotors. The wing arrangement suggested by AH is defined as a staggered bi-plane joined configuration with an upper and a lower straight wing, either side of the fuselage, connected at their outboard extent to form a triangular structure. The ASTRAL consortium, consisting of the University of Nottingham and GE Aviation Systems, are responsible for the design, manufacture, assembly and testing of the wings. Producing an optimised strategy to assemble a joined-wing configuration for a passenger carrying rotorcraft is challenging and novel. The objective of this work concerns all aspects of assembling the joined-wing structure.The joined-wing and fuselage structures will be produced independently and mated together during the final RACER assembly. A multi-stage process will deliver the joined-wing assembly and ensure it will fit to the fuselage. Producing the individual wing structures requires a…
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Intelligent Real Time Inspection of Rivet Quality Supported by Human-Robot-Collaboration

PIKON Deutschland AG-Benjamin Duppe, Albert Schulz
ZeMA GmbH-Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Tobias Masiak
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft production is facing various technical challenges, such as large product dimensions, complex joining processes and the organization of assembly tasks. Meeting the requirements that come with large dimensions, low tolerances and small batch sizes, in combination with complex joining processes, automation and labor-intensive inspection task, is often difficult to achieve in an economically viable way.ZeMA believes that a semi-automated approach is the most effective for optimizing aircraft section assembly. An effective optimization of aircraft production can be achieved with a semi-automated riveting process for solid rivets using Human-Robot-Collaboration in combination with an intuitive Human-Machine-Interaction operating concept.While using dynamic task sharing between human and robot based on their skills, and considering ergonomics, the determined ideal solution involves placing a robot inside the section barrel. The robot’s workspace is expanded by mounting it on top of a lifting unit so that it can properly position the anvil. In the meantime, the human performs the more complex tasks of inserting the solid rivets and operating the riveting hammer from the outside of the section barrel.By implementing a…
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Stuck on structural adhesives

Automotive Engineering: September 2019

Bill Visnic, Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP09_02
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

As the need for lighter materials and enhanced body performance intensifies, structural adhesives flourish as a materials-joining solution.

A funny thing happened on the way to the total-vehicle light-weighting that's now a common engineering dictate for nearly every new vehicle: structural adhesives-which entered low-volume automotive use in the 1980s-got pulled into the mainstream.

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Use of Pb-Free Ball Grid Array Component Soldered Using SnPb Solder

G-24 Pb-free Risk Management Committee for ADHP
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6415
  • Current
Published 2019-07-23 by SAE International in United States

This document contains information and guidance on the use of Pb-free ball grid arrays (BGAs) in an aerospace, defense, and high performance (ADHP) product, or other products which demand a high reliability.