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Loss of power in Military vehicles by using JP-8 instead of ULSD

Wayne State University-Prasad D. Raut, Omkar A. Atre, Manan Trivedi, Naeim Henein
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0804
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Department of Defense (DOD) has adopted to use JP-8 under the “single battlefield fuel” policy. Fuel properties of JP-8 which are different from ULSD include Cetane number, density, heating value and bulk modulus. This paper determines which of these properties cause the loss in power and suggest some strategies to regain the power lost while operating on JP-8 instead of ULSD.
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The impacts of Diesel cycle engines on the operating costs of the Cessna 172 Skyhawk and JT-A aircraft.

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Samuel Cunha Diniz, Eduardo Henrique de Assis Coelho, Gabriel Rodrigues de Oliveira, Lucas de Cardoso Oliveira, Samuel Renan Costa Morais, Victor Britto Vasques, Luiz Henrique Jorge Machado
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0321
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines have been used on the aeronautical market for a long time. Despite this fact, there are few studies showing the potential cost savings of using this type of technology. In this way, the goal of this paper is to find out whether or not it is advantageous to use an Otto or Diesel cycle engine on general aviation light aircraft. It is well known that both of them have pros and cons, however, the possibility of using Jet A-1 (kerosene) as fuel gives the Diesel engine a clear advantage in a market like Brazil, where the price of the regular piston fuel (AvGas) keeps rising to astonishing values. Throughout this paper, a detailed study of the fixed and variable costs of two similar aircraft, both Cessnas 172 equipped with Otto and Diesel cycle engines is conducted, comparing fuel consumption, performance levels, and other factors. Even though the latter engine has a higher fixed operating cost, the advantages found in this study makes the Diesel motor a step forward of its competitor, whether concerning…
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High Temperature Insulated Terminals & Splices

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS506A
  • Current
Published 2019-10-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) describes the requirements for high temperature insulated crimp style terminal lugs and splices.
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Sleeve, Protection, for Cable and Harness Protection

AE-8D Wire and Cable Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS60491A
  • Current
Published 2019-10-03 by SAE International in United States
Procurement specification is principally for defining protection sleeves on a cable or group of electrical/fiber optic wires (wiring bundle). Single wire protection depends on the minimum diameter of the wire. Sleeve may be used to protect a wire bundle for a platform installation or for repair of installed damaged jacket or jacket/shielded wire bundles. Refer to AS50881 for aerospace wire bundle protection installations.
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Bearings, Sleeve, Plain and Flanged, Self-Lubricating

ACBG Plain Bearing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS81934C
  • Current
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This standard covers plain and flanged sleeve bearings which are self-lubricating by incorporating polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in a liner in the bore for use in the temperature range of -65 to +325 °F.
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Fuel Systems and Components - Electrostatic Charge Mitigation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1645_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice deals with electrostatic charge phenomena that may occur in automotive fuel systems and applies to the following: Fuels that are in a liquid state at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressures and are contained in vehicle fuel tanks that operate at or near atmospheric pressure. This includes gasoline and diesel fuels, as well as their blends with additives such as alcohols, esters, and ethers, whether the additives are petroleum based or bio-fuel based. The group of components that comprise the fuel system (in contact and not in contact with fuels). Other components in proximity to the fuel system that may be affected by electrostatic fields caused by the fuel system. Electrostatic phenomena that arise from, or are affected by, the following aspects of vehicle or fuel system operation: ○ Flowing fuel in the fuel delivery system. ○ Flowing fuel being dispensed to the vehicle while it is being fueled.
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Low- to High-Temperature Reaction Transition in a Small-Bore Optical Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

CCDC Army Research Laboratory, USA-Kenneth S. Kim, Chol-Bum Kweon
The University of New South Wales, Australia-Harsh Goyal, Yilong Zhang, Sanghoon Kook
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-05-0031
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
This study shows the development of low-temperature and high-temperature reactions in a gasoline-fuelled compression ignition (GCI) engine realizing partially premixed combustion for high efficiency and low emissions. The focus is how the ignition occurs during the low- to high-temperature reaction transition and how it varies due to single- and double-injection strategies. In an optically accessible, single-cylinder small-bore diesel engine equipped with a common-rail fuel injection system, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of formaldehyde (HCHO-PLIF), hydroxyl (OH-PLIF), and fuel (fuel-PLIF) has been performed. This was complemented with high-speed imaging of combustion luminosity and chemiluminescence imaging of cool flame and OH*. The diagnostics were performed for two different fuels including conventional diesel as a reference case and then a kerosene-based jet fuel which is a low-ignition quality fuel with cetane number of 30, firstly with single near top dead center (TDC) injection and then a double-injection strategy implementing very early injection and late injection in the same engine. For diesel combustion, it is shown that the cool-flame and HCHO signals appear from the jet axis before spreading…
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Wire, Electrical, Crosslinked Polyalkene, Crosslinked Alkane-Imide Polymer, or Polyarlyene Insulated, Copper or Copper Alloy

AE-8D Wire and Cable Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS81044B
  • Current
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
AS81044 covers single conductor electric wires made as specified in the applicable detail specification with tin-coated, silver-coated, or nickel-coated copper or copper alloy conductors insulated with crosslinked polyalkene, crosslinked alkane-imide polymer, or polyarylene. The crosslinked polyalkene, crosslinked alkane-imide polymer, or polyarylene may be used alone or in combination with other insulation materials as specified in the detail specification.
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Heat Resistant Aluminized Paint

AMS G8 Aerospace Organic Coatings Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3604A
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This specification establishes requirements for a heat resistant aluminized organic coating with sufficient corrosion and erosion resistance for the finished substrate.
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Fittings, Axially Swaged Tube with Flareless Separable, Fluid System for Operating Pressures up to and Including 5080 psi (35000 kPa), Specification for

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5958G
  • Current
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for axially swaged titanium fittings on titanium, CRES, and aluminum tubing with flareless separable fitting ends for use in hydraulic supply and return aerospace fluid systems up to operating pressure of 5080 psig (35000 kPa) maximum. The operating temperature range for titanium tubing and CRES tubing is -65 to +275 °F (-54 to +135 °C) and the operating temperature range for aluminum return system tubing is -65 to +225 °F (-54 to +107 °C). This specification covers a common 5080 psi pressure titanium fitting that may be used for a range of operating pressures up to 5080 psi with different tubing materials and tubing wall thicknesses and is assembled with the same tooling in accordance with AS5959. The flareless fitting operating pressure is based on the fitting thread pitch. Extra fine pitch is used for 5080 psi operating pressure and fine pitch for operating pressures 3000 psi and less. Table 14 shows applicable aerospace fitting part number standard and tubing materials and operating pressures.
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