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Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

International Centre For Automotive Tech-Aditya Gautam
International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Vijayanta Ahuja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2427
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings. Concluding the fact that there are various aspects of environmental degradation henceforth we start by picking one of the hazards trying to execute a method to resolve every respective issue on a micro level, thus eliminating maximum threats onto the environment.…
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Objective Method for Crack Detection in Brake Friction Material

Industrial Measurement Systems Inc.-Donald Yuhas, Carol Vorres
KBAutoSys America-Richard Kaatz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2113
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Friction material manufacturing is a complex process where numerous raw materials are mixed, pressed, and cured to make brake pads. It is important to have a consistent manufacturing process that can produce a brake pad that satisfies the vehicle braking requirements. A basic and critical requirement for any brake pad is structural integrity with no internal cracks. In this work a series of processing changes were made to intentionally produce internal cracks in the friction material. Various pad crack detection methods were studied, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed in detail. One of the crack detection methods used an ultrasonic measuring instrument which gives objective data in the form of calculated modulus of elasticity and signal loss. The details of the machine and how the measurements are obtained are discussed. The modulus calculation is also described. Additionally, random pads with and without cracks were selected and checked using subjective and objective crack detection methods. The comparison analysis is discussed, and authors were able to show the difference between cracked and non-cracked pads using several…
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Frequency Inspection of Brake System Components

Signalysis Inc.-Robert Cagle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2117
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Frequency inspection has long been a tool utilized by manufacturers of brake system components as a means of quality control. This is important to combat perceived defectiveness of a system that experiences issues, such as brake squeal, as well as to identify actual defects in the parts going out to customers. Every component has its own resonance frequencies based on the dynamics of that component. Knowledge of the resonance frequencies of each component provides insight that can prevent manufacturers from sending out defective units, whether they be perceived defects or actual defects. NVH engineers who understand these phenomena perform theoretical analysis and acquire experimental data in the lab to gain insight into their parts that will eventually be produced on the assembly line. Unfortunately, the frequency requirements, and the consequences thereof, defined by the NVH engineers can still remain somewhat of a mystery to the manufacturing engineers who are tasked with applying them. Oversights in specifications can lead to avoidable scares that lead to delays and downtime. For example, differences in accelerometer placement on a…
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Evaluation of Dynamic Wheel Alignment Audit System Performance

Hunter Engineering Company, United States-Mark E. Stirnemann, Aaron C. Hall, Mark E. Books
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0012
Published 2019-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Wheel alignment audit systems are used in vehicle service environments to identify vehicles which may benefit from a comprehensive evaluation on a precision static alignment measurement system. Non-contact dynamic wheel alignment audit systems acquire measurement data from vehicles in motion passing between sensors in an inspection lane. The dynamic nature of the moving vehicles introduces variables which are not present when auditing wheel alignment on a static vehicle. Measurement results are affected by changes in vehicle velocity, steering movement, suspension movement, floor surface conditions, tire sidewall profiles, and driver presence, as well as other variables. Examining the effects on acquired measurements introduced to a non-contact dynamic wheel alignment audit system by these variables shows that utilization of multiple points of measurement and statistical averaging techniques allows for meaningful measurement results, enabling a non-contact dynamic wheel alignment audit system to reliably distinguish between moving vehicles which are in need of further inspection for alignment issues and moving vehicles which are aligned within manufacturer tolerances.
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CONNECTOR RECEPTACLE, REVERSE BAYONET COUPLING, DUMMY STOWAGE

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS95234/12
  • Current
Published 2019-08-27 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Microfocus, Dual-Energy Imaging System Improves Contaminant Detection

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34935
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Contamination of food with fragments of bone, metal, glass, or other foreign material is a major concern in the food industry. Current inspection technologies often miss very small fragments embedded in meat or other soft materials or lead to ambiguous results that require time-intensive verification.

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Inspection of Ground, Chromium, Plated Steel Parts

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2440C
  • Current
Published 2019-07-18 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers the requirements for inspection of ground chromium plated surfaces for grinder-induced damage to the chromium plate and substructure. The specification also provides users with criteria for distinguishing between such damage and acceptable indications inherent to the chromium plate.

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New and Newly Retreaded Tire Appearance

A-5C Aircraft Tires Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6307A
  • Current
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
This document is for establishing and addressing anomalies on appearance of new and newly retreaded tires prior to installation on aircraft. It is intended to use cosmetics as well as functionality to make a determination of acceptability. However, if cosmetic appearance is not a requirement, use the inspection criteria from ARP6225. This ARP does not supersede (E)TSO-C62 minimum requirements, including marking requirements.
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Detection Method for Cavity Defects in Ballastless Track Structures of High-Speed Railways Based on Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Lamb Waves

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Shanghai University of Engineering and Technology, China-Zhu Wenfa, Shao Wei, Chen Xingjie, Meng Xiangzhen
Shanghai University, China-Zhang Haiyan
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-02-0010
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
This study proposes a method for the rapid detection and location of cavity defects in ballastless track structures of high-speed railways in service. First, the propagation of air-coupled ultrasonic Lamb waves in the ballastless track structure is studied. Theoretical calculation results show that the ultrasonic Lamb wave group velocity of the A2 mode in the track plate is 4000 m/s. Then, the excitation and reception methods of the air-coupled ultrasound are studied. Theoretical and experimental results show that the A2 mode Lamb wave can be generated by the 3.8° oblique incidence of the ballastless track structure. Finally, an experimental system for air-coupled ultrasonic testing is constructed. A pair of air-coupled ultrasonic probes is used to provide excitation and reception Lamb wave signals at an inclined angle of 3.8°, 20 mm away from the surface of the track plate, and 40 mm/step along the scanning direction. Experimental data indicate that interaction between the Lamb wave and cavity conforms to the energy leakage principle, and the amplitude of the Lamb wave increases with the increase in cavity…
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Inspection of Bulk Material with Trilinear Line-Scan and Prism Cameras

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34766
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Traditionally, prism-based cameras are often selected over trilinear cameras when it comes to bulk material scanning, as the inherent line-shift of a trilinear camera can only be corrected when the object scan velocity is known. In this article it is demonstrated that the traditional approach is not always necessary if the right trilinear sensor is selected and operated in binning mode to average multiple pixels.