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Unsettled Technology Domains in Aerospace Additive Manufacturing Concerning Safety, Airworthiness, and Certification

Muelaner Engineering, Ltd.-Jody Muelaner
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019008
To be published on 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Additive manufacturing (AM) is currently being used to produce many certified aerospace components. However, significant advantages of AM are not exploited due to unresolved issues associated with process control, feedstock materials, surface finish, inspection, and cost. Components subject to fatigue must undergo surface finish improvements to enable inspection. This adds cost and limits the use of topology optimization. Continued development of process models is also required to enable optimization and understand the potential for defects in thin walled and slender sections. Costs are high for powder-fed processes due to material costs, machine costs, and low deposition rates. Cost for wire-fed processes are high due to the extensive post-process machining required. In addition, these processes are limited to low-complexity features. Incremental improvements in all of these areas are being made but a step change could potentially be achieved by hybrid processes, which use wire feedstock to deposit the bulk of the part and powder for fine detail. NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are intended to identify and illuminate key issues in emerging, but still unsettled, technologies…
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Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Vijayanta Ahuja, Aditya Gautam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2427
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings. Concluding the fact that there are various aspects of environmental degradation henceforth we start by picking one of the hazards trying to execute a method to resolve every respective issue on a micro level, thus eliminating maximum threats onto the environment.…
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Procedure for Inspection of In-Service Airborne Accumulators for Corrosion and Damage

A-6C4 Power Sources Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4150A
  • Current
Published 2019-11-12 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is a guide in establishing inspection procedures to determine the condition of in-service accumulators. Recommendations are also provided for corrective action if it is determined that the environment is contributing to the deterioration of the surface protection system treatments.

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Manufacturing and Inspection Standards for Preformed Packings (O-Rings)

A-6C2 Seals Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS871B
  • Current
Published 2019-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This specification controls surface condition, manufacturing defects and inspection requirements, and defines methods of measurement for elastomeric toroidal sealing rings (O-rings) for static (including gasket) applications.
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Eddy Current Inspection of Circular Holes in Nonferrous Metallic Aircraft Engine Hardware

AMS K Non Destructive Methods and Processes Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS4787A
  • Current
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum requirements for eddy current inspection of circular holes in nonferrous, metallic, low conductivity (less than 5% IACS) aircraft engine hardware with fasteners removed. The inspection is intended to be performed at maintenance and overhaul facilities on engine run hardware.

Smart, Hybrid Actuators Combine Nanometer Precision, Large Forces, and Long Travel Ranges with High Dynamics

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35290
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The characteristics of hybrid drives present a practical solution when a position needs to be detected with high precision and moved repeatedly over long travel ranges, or when a target position needs to be reached with nanometer precision. Application areas include precision movement of telescopes, microscopy, surface inspection, semiconductor manufacturing, and laser technology.

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Objective Method for Crack Detection in Brake Friction Material

Industrial Measurement Systems Inc.-Donald Yuhas, Carol Vorres
KBAutoSys America-Richard Kaatz
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Friction material manufacturing is a complex process where numerous raw materials are mixed, pressed, and cured to make brake pads. It is important to have a consistent manufacturing process that can produce a brake pad that satisfies the vehicle braking requirements. A basic and critical requirement for any brake pad is structural integrity with no internal cracks. In this work a series of processing changes were made to intentionally produce internal cracks in the friction material. Various pad crack detection methods were studied, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed in detail. One of the crack detection methods used an ultrasonic measuring instrument which gives objective data in the form of calculated modulus of elasticity and signal loss. The details of the machine and how the measurements are obtained are discussed. The modulus calculation is also described. Additionally, random pads with and without cracks were selected and checked using subjective and objective crack detection methods. The comparison analysis is discussed, and authors were able to show the difference between cracked and non-cracked pads using several…
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Frequency Inspection of Brake System Components

Signalysis Inc.-Robert Cagle
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Frequency inspection has long been a tool utilized by manufacturers of brake system components as a means of quality control. This is important to combat perceived defectiveness of a system that experiences issues, such as brake squeal, as well as to identify actual defects in the parts going out to customers. Every component has its own resonance frequencies based on the dynamics of that component. Knowledge of the resonance frequencies of each component provides insight that can prevent manufacturers from sending out defective units, whether they be perceived defects or actual defects. NVH engineers who understand these phenomena perform theoretical analysis and acquire experimental data in the lab to gain insight into their parts that will eventually be produced on the assembly line. Unfortunately, the frequency requirements, and the consequences thereof, defined by the NVH engineers can still remain somewhat of a mystery to the manufacturing engineers who are tasked with applying them. Oversights in specifications can lead to avoidable scares that lead to delays and downtime. For example, differences in accelerometer placement on a…
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Evaluation of Dynamic Wheel Alignment Audit System Performance

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Hunter Engineering Company, United States-Mark E. Stirnemann, Aaron C. Hall, Mark E. Books
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0012
Published 2019-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Wheel alignment audit systems are used in vehicle service environments to identify vehicles which may benefit from a comprehensive evaluation on a precision static alignment measurement system. Non-contact dynamic wheel alignment audit systems acquire measurement data from vehicles in motion passing between sensors in an inspection lane. The dynamic nature of the moving vehicles introduces variables which are not present when auditing wheel alignment on a static vehicle. Measurement results are affected by changes in vehicle velocity, steering movement, suspension movement, floor surface conditions, tire sidewall profiles, and driver presence, as well as other variables. Examining the effects on acquired measurements introduced to a non-contact dynamic wheel alignment audit system by these variables shows that utilization of multiple points of measurement and statistical averaging techniques allows for meaningful measurement results, enabling a non-contact dynamic wheel alignment audit system to reliably distinguish between moving vehicles which are in need of further inspection for alignment issues and moving vehicles which are aligned within manufacturer tolerances.
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Machine Vision Applications in Laser Measurement Systems

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35167
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Machine vision is a broad term with many applications and definitions, but at its most basic definition it is using an imager or camera along with software to inspect and analyze a real world object. In addition to the camera and software, machine vision systems usually include lighting, optics, and pass/fail mechanisms.