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Bicycle Braking Performance Testing and Analysis

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Nicholas Famiglietti, Benjamin Nguyen, Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0876
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The goal of this study was to determine the braking capabilities of different bicycle types, with different brake setups and applications. A variety of bicycles, including a mountain bike, beach cruiser, BMX bike, road bike, and commuter bike were used to perform brake-to-stop tests. Prior to brake testing, the bicycles were fully inspected, prepped, and documented. Details of the bicycles’ make, model, tires, wheels, brake setup, suspension setup, and preexisting damage were photographed and recorded. The standardized brake testing procedure consisted of rear only brake application and both front and rear brake application. In order to maintain brake application consistency, a single rider performed all series of the skid/brake tests at the same location, on dry asphalt. The tests were performed at an initial velocity of 9 – 20 mph. For each test, the rider accelerated to the test speed and applied maximum braking effort while maintaining a natural upright position to reduce lean. The tests were performed on a painted grid for visibility purposed in measuring skid lengths and post-test video analysis. The bicycle…
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Automated Inspection of Polished Skin

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Naofumi Aoki, Takuya Ota, Masayoshi Zaitsu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0032
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This report is about development result of an automatic defect detector for polished skins. The “polished skin” material is used for an outside plate of commercial airplanes. The polished skin is manufactured by polishing the surface of an aluminum clad material and it has a uniform high level of color, brightness, and reflectivity. It can be used without painting because the surface has a natural oxide layer which prevents corrosion. The polished skins are inspected with visual observation and it is large burden for inspectors to find minute defects on the large size materials. An automated inspection is not easy because the material has mirror surface and its size is large. Defects on the polished skin can be classified broadly into three categories: dent, bump and color change. Therefore, a defect detector has to be able to detect these defects, and measure surface profile of defects. This technical report presents the outcomes from a design and a manufacture of the defect detector which has been designed to be low cost and high performance. It has…
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Delivery of Mixed Reality Tools Training in the Modern Production Environment

Boeing Co.-Mark Friesen, Lorrie Sivich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0052
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since the early development of Mixed Reality (MR) technologies for the gaming industry, Boeing Research and Technology has been a leader in applying the technology to the production environment. Mixed Reality technologies have matured in size reduction and cost enabling a wide variety of visualization tools into the factory today. They include: tablets, Microsoft’s HoloLens, Google Glasses, Vive, and Oculus to name a few. These digital productivity tools allow the factory worker to perform work through installation, quality inspection, and trouble shooting.
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In-Process Hole and Fastener Inspection Using a High-Accuracy Laser Sensor

Electroimpact Inc.-Zachary Luker, Erin Stansbury
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0015
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact has produced a new in-process inspection system for use on drilling and fastening systems. The system uses a high-accuracy, non-contact, laser system to measure the flushness of installed fasteners. The system is also capable of measuring part normality and providing feedback to the machine for correction. One drawback to many automatic inspection systems is measurement error. Many sources of measurement error exist in a production environment, including drilling chips, lubrication, and fastener head markings. Electroimpact’s latest system can create a visualization of the measured fastener for the operator to interpret. This allows the operator to determine the cause of a failed measurement, thus reducing machine downtime due to false negatives. Electroimpact created a custom C# WPF application that queries the point-cloud data and analyzes the raw data. A custom “circle Hough transform” scoring algorithm is used to find the center of the nosepiece (pressure foot). A best fit plane is calculated from the point cloud data to find the panel surface. This plane is then used to output panel normality in the A and…
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Unsettled Technology Domains in Aerospace Additive Manufacturing Concerning Safety, Airworthiness, and Certification

Muelaner Engineering, Ltd.-Jody Muelaner
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019008
Published 2019-12-23 by SAE International in United States
Additive manufacturing (AM) is currently being used to produce many certified aerospace components. However, significant advantages of AM are not exploited due to unresolved issues associated with process control, feedstock materials, surface finish, inspection, and cost. Components subject to fatigue must undergo surface finish improvements to enable inspection. This adds cost and limits the use of topology optimization. Continued development of process models is also required to enable optimization and understand the potential for defects in thin-walled and slender sections. Costs are high for powder-fed processes due to material costs, machine costs, and low deposition rates. Costs for wire-fed processes are high due to the extensive postprocess machining required. In addition, these processes are limited to low-complexity features. Incremental improvements in all of these areas are being made, but a step change could potentially be achieved by hybrid processes, which use wire feedstock to deposit the bulk of the part and powder for fine detail.NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are intended to identify and illuminate key issues in emerging, but still unsettled, technologies of interest…
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Fundamentals of GD&T 2018 3-day

  • Professional Development
  • ET1920024
Published 2019-12-03

This course teaches the terms, rules, symbols, and concepts of GD&T as prescribed in the ASME Y14.5-2018 Standard.

This course offers an in-depth explanation of geometric tolerancing symbols, their tolerance zones, applicable modifiers, common applications, and verification principles. The class includes a comparison of GD&T to the directly toleranced dimensioning method; Rules #1 and #2; form and orientation controls; tolerance of position; runout and profile controls. Newly acquired learning is reinforced throughout the class with more than 150 practice problems.  

Each attendee receives a Fundamentals of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 2018,  Using Critical Thinking Skills textbook by Alex Krulikowski (Based on the ASME Y14.5-2018)

Students who attend courses like this one walk away with more than knowledge - they gain on-the-job skills because the learning materials are performance-based and taught by industry professionals.

MMOD Impact Detection and Location

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35686
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Determination of micrometeoroid/ orbital debris (MMOD) impact on orbiting spacecraft currently requires visual inspection. For human-rated spacecraft such as the International Space Station (ISS) and previously, the Space Shuttle Orbiter, this has required crew time as well as vehicle assets to identify damage due to MMOD strikes. For unmanned spacecraft, there are no human assets present to conduct detailed surveys to ascertain potential damage.

Expanding Traditional Machine Vision With High-Speed Digital Imaging

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35474
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Machine vision is a proven process control tool for a variety of industrial automation applications. Traditionally, this technology integrates commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) imaging sensors, lighting modules and processors to guide, inspect or identify parts as they move along production lines. Compared to human operators, machine vision systems are fast, accurate and repeatable—improving product quality, lowering scrap rates and increasing productivity in fast-paced manufacturing environments.

Robots Can Pick Up Any Object After Inspecting It

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35425
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

For decades, robots in controlled environments like assembly lines have been able to pick up the same object over and over again. More recently, breakthroughs in computer vision have enabled robots to make basic distinctions between objects. Even then, though, the systems don’t truly understand objects’ shapes, so there’s little the robots can do after a quick pickup.

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Manufacturing and Inspection Standards for Preformed Packings (O-Rings)

A-6C2 Seals Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS871B
  • Current
Published 2019-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This specification controls surface condition, manufacturing defects and inspection requirements, and defines methods of measurement for elastomeric toroidal sealing rings (O-rings) for static (including gasket) applications.
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