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Using Design of Experiments to Size and Calibrate the Powertrain of Range-Extended Electric Vehicle

Ricardo UK Ltd.-Ran Bao, James Baxter, Pascal Revereault
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0849
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV) usually has an auxiliary power source that can provide additional range when the main Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) runs out. The range extender can be a fuel cell, a gas turbine, or an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) bolted to a generator. Sizing the powertrain for a REEV is primarily to investigate the relationship between the capacity of the main RESS and the power rating of the range extender. Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP) introduced a Utility Factor (UF) which is a curve used to calculate the weighted test results for the Off-Vehicle Charging-Hybrid Electric Vehicle (OVC-HEV) from the measured Charge Depleting (CD) mode range result, and the Charge Sustaining (CS) mode Fuel Consumption (FC). Therefore, the RESS capacity, the range extender power rating, the control strategy, and the UF are the key factors affecting the weighted FC of a REEV on the test cycle. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a fast approach to develop REEV powertrain concepts. It can size the capacity of the…
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Experimental Study of Spark-Ignition Combustion using the Anode-off Gas from a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Assanis & Associates, Inc.-Dimitris Assanis
Stony Brook University-Zhongnan Ran, Deivanayagam Hariharan, Sotirios Mamalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0351
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Worldwide energy demands have been drastically increasing in recent decades causing accelerated depletion of fossil fuel resources and thus increasing the generation of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have attracted attention in recent years as a novel, innovative and more environmentally friendly energy conversion technology for electrical energy generation. SOFCs can generate electrical power with high net conversion efficiency while emitting relatively low pollutant emissions in comparison to other distributed energy generation systems used today, but they have also exhibited limited robustness and versatility and load following capability. Recent studies have explored hybridized systems, which combine a SOFC with another energy conversion device, e.g. gas turbines or internal combustion engines, to increase the global efficiency of the system. This study is focused on exploring a hybrid SOFC-internal combustion engine system that can use the anode off-gas as a fuel for the engine. The engine can be used to provide additional power to the system and also serve as a means for balance of plant. Although this concept appears to be…
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Optimal Sizing and Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Turboelectric Aircraft

Georgia Institute of Technology-Christopher Perullo
Ohio State University-Aaronn Sergent, Michael Ramunno, Matilde D'Arpino, Marcello Canova
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0050
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid-electric gas turbine generators are considered a promising technology for more efficient and sustainable air transportation. The Ohio State University is leading the NASA University Leadership Initiative (ULI) Electric Propulsion: Challenges and Opportunities, focused on the design and demonstration of advanced components and systems to enable high-efficiency hybrid turboelectric powertrains in regional aircraft to be deployed in 2030. Within this large effort, the team is optimizing the design of the battery energy storage system (ESS) and, concurrently, developing a supervisory energy management strategy for the hybrid system to reduce fuel burn while mitigating the impact on the ESS life. In this paper, an energy-based model was developed to predict the performance of a battery-hybrid turboelectric distributed-propulsion (BHTeDP) regional jet. A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of ESS sizing and cell selection on the optimal power split between the turbogenerators (TGs) and ESS. To this extent, the supervisory energy management strategy is formulated into a discrete time optimal control problem and solved via dynamic programming. The performance of BHTeDP was compared to a turboelectric…
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Electronic Engine Control Design Guide for Electromagnetic Environmental Effects

E-36 Electronic Engine Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5060B
  • Current
Published 2020-02-26 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this document is to provide reference material for establishing compatibility of electronic gas turbine engine control systems and associated components with the electromagnetic environment and achieving compliance with associated airworthiness requirements.
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Thermal behavior of aircraft gas turbine blades under different internal cooling conditions

Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - IFES-L. P. Borlini, T. V. Caniçali, L. N. Santos, J. A. Coelho, I. M. Minchio, F. A. F. Monhol
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0212
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Gas turbines are high value-added equipment due to their compact construction, lower weight and high power compared to traditional internal combustion engines. This equipment is subject to high mechanical demands, high temperatures, corrosive and erosive environments, which certainly have a direct influence on its performance. Thus, with the increasing demands of the aerospace industry, it became necessary to use devices to improve their efficiency, such as internal cooling systems and insulation layers. However, a detailed knowledge of the operational variables is necessary in order to define the appropriate internal cooling conditions of the equipment. Thus, the present work aims to analyze, through computational simulations using the finite difference method in its two-dimensional form, the temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate of gas turbine blades under different thermal conditions. The temperature of the hot gas flowing through the blades, as well as the flow and temperature of the cooling air that passes through their internal channels, were varied in order to obtain the influence of each of these factors on the thermal behavior of the…

Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35795
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Innovators at NASA's Glenn Research Center have developed two durable environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) for use with ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components. CMCs are lightweight composites used to reduce fuel consumption in advanced gas turbines and other high-temperature, high-stress environments (up to 1482 °C). Glenn's breakthrough EBCs are the only coatings that can withstand such temperatures, protecting CMCs from increased wear and corrosion, oxidation, and water vapor recession in extreme environments. In addition, these EBCs can be fabricated with simpler and lower-cost methods than conventional coating processes such as plasma spraying.

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Management of Change Considerations for Aero Gas Turbine Engine Lubricants Under AS5780

E-34 Propulsion Lubricants Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6918
  • Current
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
The intent is to provide a reference which explains the types of possible changes to AS5780 products and provide appropriate context to the QPG. All product change requests to the QPG will be evaluated on their merits recognizing the content of this AIR is guidance only.
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Assessment of Numerical Cold Flow Testing of Gas Turbine Combustor through an Integrated Approach Using Rapid Prototyping and Water Tunnel

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Ssheshan Pugazhendhi
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundararaj Senthilkumar
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the present work, it is aimed at developing an integrated approach for combustor modeling involving rapid prototyping and water tunnel testing to assess the cold flow numerical simulations; the physical model will be subjected to cold flow visualization and parametric studies and CFD analysis to demonstrate its capability for undergoing rigorous cold flow testing. A straight through annular combustors is chosen for the present study because of it has low pressure drop, less weight and used widely in modern day aviation engines.Numerical Analysis has been performed using ANSYS-FLUENT. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved using k-ɛ model for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.64 x 105-1.5 x 105 based on the annulus diameter. Post processing the results is done in terms of jet penetration, formation of recirculation zone, effective mixing, flow split and pressure drop for different cases. Physical combustor models are fabricated using Rapid prototyping with Poly Lactic Acid material and approximated 2D combustor model is used for capturing important flow patterns using high speed camera in 2D water tunnel, and for pressure…
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Parameter Optimization during Minimum Quantity Lubrication Turning of Inconel 625 Alloy with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles Dispersed Vegetable-Oil-Based Cutting Fluid

Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Inconel 625, nickel based alloy, is found in gas turbine blades, seals, rings, shafts, and turbine disks. On the other hand, the manufacturing of this alloy is challenging, mainly when machining processes are used due to excellent mechanical properties. Application of nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) shows gaining importance in the machining process, which is economical and eco-friendly. The principal objective of this investigational work is to study the influence of three types of nanofluids in the MQL turning of Inconel 625 nickel based alloys. The used nanofluids are multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), alumina (Al2O3) and copper oxide (CUO) dispersed in vegetable oil. Taguchi-based L27 orthogonal array is used for the experimental design. The parameter optimization of design variables over response is carried out by the use of Taguchi-based derringer's desirability function. The design variables are machining parameters (speed, feed), nanofluids (Al2O3, CNT, CUO), and three different weight percentage (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 wt. %). The results showed that minimum values of surface roughness could be achieved at 0.10 wt. % of nanoparticles, CNT…
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Advanced Exergy Analysis of an Air Craft Gas Turbine Engine at Different Power Loading Operations

GIFT, Bhubaneshwar-Alok Kumar Mohapatra
VIT Universtity Vellore-Tapano Hotta
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The innovations in aircraft propulsion have been identified as the key parameter towards the progress in transportation. Continuous advancement in the performance and efficiency of propulsion has enabled aircraft to travel over larger distances with higher speed. Aviation is also responsible for approximately 2% of total greenhouse gas emission and is expected to grow around 3% by 2050. The present article aims to use the exergetic analysis of a turboprop engine which should be helpful in designing of such engines and also helps these engine users to regulate and select the operation modes. A gas turbine with film air cooling of turbine blades has been proposed to be the turboprop engine. The engine is analyzed on exergy point of view at different power loading operation modes and the performance is studied. Selected exergetic measures under consideration are Exergy Efficiency, Fuel Exergy Depletion Ratio, Relative Exergy Consumption Ratio, Exergetic Improvement potential and Productivity Lack ratio. The total fuel exergy depletion ratio of the turboprop engine is estimated to be around 64.7 % at 100% loading. Also,…
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