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Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses: Modelling and Analysing Suitability from an Operator and Environmental Perspective

Queen's University Belfast-Darryl Doyle, Andrew Harris, Steve Chege, Lucinda Douglas, Juliana Early
Wrightbus-Robert Best
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1172
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Global commitments to decrease greenhouse gas emissions have led to a shift to alternative powertrains in the transport sector. In addition to this, stricter controls on air quality within cities has seen the introduction of zero emission zones, requiring vehicles with full zero emission capabilities. As a result, there is growing interest in hydrogen fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) as a zero local emission vehicle with superior range, operational flexibility and refuelling time than other clean alternatives e.g. battery electric buses (BEBs). This is illustrated in increased investment through projects such as JIVE/JIVE2, which are deploying nearly 300 FCEBs and refuelling infrastructure in Europe by the early 2020s. This paper details the performance and suitability analysis of a proposed FCEB, using a quasistatic backwards-facing Simulink powertrain model. The model is validated against existing vehicle data (Mk1), allowing it to be further leveraged for predictions of an advanced future production vehicle (Mk2) with next generation motors and fuel cell stack. The modelled outputs are used for a comparison of the FCEB performance to an equivalent BEB…
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A progress review on cold start methods and influence factors for automotive PEMFC system

Tongji Univ-Sichuan Xu
Tongji University-Pengcheng Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0852
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This review presents comprehensive methods and influence factors of the research progress in solving the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells(PEMFC) system cold start problems with more than 100 patents, papers and reports. This may do some help for PEMFC system cold start from the point of practical utilization. This paper can be divided into six parts. Firstly, in introduction part, the recent achievements and goals will be summarized. Then, thanks to the cold start whole process includes PEMFC system shut down and cold start from subfreezing environment, so different actions or methods will be discussed based on system shutdown and cold start from subfreezing environment. Solutions and methods for fuel cell system shutdown are summarized into two categories: purge solution and keeping warm. In regard to the strategies for PEMFC system cold startup, different heating solutions are classified into self-heating strategies and auxiliary-heating heating depending on their heating sources. Solutions and strategies are compared and concluded based on the recent progress. Moreover, the whole process strategies will be concluded according to the relative researches. What’s…
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Effect of geometry variations in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

Siemens Digital Industries Software-Carlo Locci, Chris Lueth, Huong Nguyen, Karin Frojd
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1174
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water transport at high current densities is of main concern for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The water content of the membrane has to be high enough to provide maximum electrical conductivity and thus optimal stack performance. Dry-out may also lead to membrane degradation. However, a too high level of humidity leads to cell flooding, blocking the air and fuel flows to the catalyst sites and thus the reactions, resulting in a drop in efficiency. Fuel cells water transport physics requires further investigation due to its complexity [1,2] and numerical modelling can improve the fundamental understanding of the phenomena. In this work, an optimization algorithm is used to optimize a fuel cells geometry to improve the temperature distribution and the pressure drop. In addition, the effect of the several geometric configurations on the water management is discussed. The PEM fuel cell is modelled in Siemens Simcenter STAR-CCM+ [3]. Anode and cathode GDL and catalyst layers are modelled as porous media, with electrochemical reactions in the catalyst layer. The membrane is modelled as a solid block…
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Random Vibration Fatigue Life Assessment of Transmission Control Module (TCM) Bracket Considering the Mean Stress Effect

General Motors-Neeraj Carpenter, Sudeep Yesudas, Michael D. Nienhuis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0194
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Random loads are experienced by many engineering systems/components such as the housing and the brackets mounted on the chassis of an automobile, wind blowing on the wind turbine blades, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) used in battery electric vehicles, fuel cell stacks mounted on housing of a fuel cell etc. In automotive systems, random load is caused due to unevenness of the road surface. As these loads are varying in nature, it could lead to the fatigue failure of systems experiencing such loads. To ensure structural integrity, they are designed considering random loads and commercially used FE software packages have the capabilities available to evaluate random vibration fatigue. While above mentioned systems undergo random loads during operation, there are other loads/stresses also acting on them such as assembly loads (bolt preload), residual stresses due to casting, static loads i.e. load due to belt or chain drive etc. Consideration of all significant loads are extremely important for a design engineer and CAE analyst while designing such systems in order to ensure the reliability of their design. The…
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A Development of the purge controller design based on H2 concentration estimator in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

HYUNDAI MOTOR GROUP-SOONWOO KWON, JOONYONG Lee, SOONILL JEON
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0854
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The optimal control of anode H2 concentration in fuel cell is the key performance parameter for efficiency and durability of the FCEV. Due to the immaturity of the H2 concentration sensor, the anode H2 concentration estimator has been developed based on the knowledge of physical laws. Modeling simplification of plumbing and duct in H2 supply system causes estimation error depending on the driving cycle and environment condition, but proper design of calibration parameters can make the error within reasonable range. In this paper, mathematical model of H2 concentration estimator is proposed and the effectiveness of purge controller based on the estimator is demonstrated.
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Cost-efficient Cathode Air Path for PEM Fuel Cell systems

MANN+HUMMEL GmbH-Michael Harenbrock, Alexander Korn, Andreas Weber
MANN+HUMMEL Innenraumfilter GmbH & Co.KG-Eva Hallbauer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1176
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell technology will play a major role in reducing transportation-related emissions, especially in sectors where battery-electric powertrains will face severe challenges, e.g. in heavy-duty, long-haul applications, as it decouples system weight from electric driving range. To achieve the required fuel cell stack lifetime, the supply of clean air is essential, especially with low Platinum catalyst loads required to achieve the DOE cost targets. As gases as NOx, SO2 and NH3 can poison the catalyst, leading to - often irreversible - loss in power supply from the stack, these must be captured by use of tailor-made activated carbons. Research on real-life concentrations of these contaminants under different driving patterns and road profiles leads to the knowledge-based design of Cathode Air Filter elements. Cost-efficient Balance-of-Plant components are required to integrate the filter into the full Cathode Air path. To prevent flooding of components like air filter, humidifier, or the stack itself, water separators are integrated at different position inside the system. Air ducts are designed in a way to operate under the different temperature and pressure…
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Investigation of the operating conditions on the water and thermal management for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by one-dimensional model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Large-scale simulation of PEM fuel cell using a “3D+1D” model

Imperial College London-Yang Jiang
Tianjin University-Biao Xie, Guobin Zhang, Yan Yin, Qing Du, Kui Jiao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0860
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is widely seen as a promising energy conversion device especially for transportation application scenario, due to its high efficiency, low operation temperature and nearly-zero road emission. Modeling and simulation is of significant importance to help cast light on the complicated physiochemical phenomena and provide optimization suggestions and strategies, e.g. on structure design. PEM fuel cell models have been developed based on different dimensions including 1D, 2D, 3D and intermediate combinations in between (e.g. “1+1D”) during the past decades. 1D model benefits from plentiful assumptions and gains excellent calculation speed. On the other hand, 3D model has great advantage on obtaining comprehensive information inside the cell. For macro-scale modeling work, one compromise aiming to realize both acceptable computation speed and reasonable reflection of cell operation state is to simplify the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Therefore in this study, a “3D+1D” model is developed in which the 3D domain contains flow field and gas diffusion layer (GDL) of cathode side. The remaining part of MEA and the anode side are…
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Parameter Identification for A Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Model

Tongji Univ-Hao Yuan, Haifeng Dai, Xuezhe Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0858
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system has emerged as the state-of-art power source for the electric vehicle, but the widespread commercial application of fuel cell vehicle is restricted by its short service life. An enabling high accuracy model holds the key for better understanding, simulation, analysis, subsystem control of the fuel cell system to extract full power and prolong the lifespan. In this paper, a quasi-dynamic lumped parameters model for a 3kW stack is introduced, which includes filling-and-emptying cavity sub-models for the relationships between periphery signals and internal states, static water transferring sub-model for the membrane, and empirical electrochemical sub-model for the voltage response. Several dynamic experiments are carried out to identify unknown parameters of the model. According to the periphery measurable signals, the model is parameterized using a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA)/particle swarm optimization (PSO) method, which combined the advantages of conventional GA and PSO to reduce risks of being trapped into local optima. Comparison of the identified results and test voltages shows that the model is capable of predicting the voltage…
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Energy Management of Dual Energy Source of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

China Faw Co Ltd-Yuanzhi Liu, Zhao Yu
China Faw Co., Ltd.-Haoyuan Song
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0595
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the growing shortage of oil resources and the increasingly strict environmental regulations, countries are vigorously developing new energy vehicles, and as a truly zero-emission vehicle in the application, fuel cell electric vehicles can not only completely replace gasoline cars in term of fuel, but also have the advantages of high energy conversion efficiency, short hydrogenation time and long driving range. For Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCEV), and the Energy Management Control Strategy is the "core" of the whole vehicle control system, which has a direct and significant effect on the power and economy of the vehicle. In this paper, the "dual energy source system" composed of fuel cell and power battery is taken as the research object. Based on the proposed power system structure, a fuel cell hybrid power management control strategy is designed, and the simulation model based on Matlab/Simulink and real vehicle are adopted to perform performance verification on standard operating conditions. The strategy aims at optimizing the power and economy, sets the target control value of the SOC, coordinates the…