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Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

ARAI-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik
VIT Universtity-Senthil Kumar Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2509
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options. This paper presents a comprehensive review on various control strategies and Energy Management Systems (EMS) proposed and developed for HEVs. This paper revisits architecture of HEVs and different types of HEVs. An optimum control strategy for…

Powertrain Modelling of a Fuel Cell Three-Wheeler for the Indian Roads

PES University-Abhishek Puthige, Sharanabasappa Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2513
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The three wheeled vehicles are extremely popular in the Indian subcontinent and are constantly posting a positive growth in sales. Given this trend and their polluting nature they can be noted as sizeable contributors to the air quality issues plaguing the metropolitan cities. With the nation aiming at eradicating the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) in passenger transportation by the year 2030, there have been attempts to convert ICE three-wheelers to battery electric three-wheeler. However, the battery electric three-wheelers, which are quite commonly used for end-mile connectivity, serve to highlight the demerits of the technology pertaining to their range, charge cycle, power to weight ratio, and efficiency. Hydrogen based are fuel cells gaining traction as a potential alternative to batteries due to their efficient and clean power generation. The present paper aims to develop and recommend an optimized power management strategy along with a driveline model for addressing the intra-city connectivity in a typical Indian city. The simulation models considering a parallel hybrid electric three-wheeler with a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell as the…

An analysis of the Fuel Cell Pack with different Drive cycles

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-C Venkatesh Chandrasekar, L R Amruth Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2510
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
An analysis of the Fuel Cell Pack with different Drive cycles Abstract: In the view of the Environmental friendly future, every automotive manufacturer is making a move towards electric mobility. Zero emission can be achieved with the help of electric vehicles. However, there are some limitations too. Battery electric vehicle (BEV) gives a limited range in the vehicles and even their market penetration is difficult because of their energy storage capability. A fuel cell unit can be added to the system, which increases the range and the energy capacity of the system. Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) system is faster to refill compared to plugin charging in the Battery electric vehicle (BEV). This study deals with the behavioural analysis of the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel cell based on the different drive cycles. Fuel cell model has been developed and simulated in the SIMULINK environment. Simulation results were obtained for the different drive cycles. Fuel cell controls were even observed for the city start/stop cycle. The results obtained from the simulation for the different…

A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric truck

VE Commercial Vehicles Limited-L R Amruth Kumar
VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-C Venkatesh Chandrasekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2514
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric truck C.Venkatesh - Manager - Product Development, Sustainable Mobility & Advanced Technologies Abstract: A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle Abstract: Today's growing commercial vehicle population creates a demand for fossil fuel surplus requirement and develops highly polluted urban cities in the world. Hence addressing both factors are very much essential. Battery electric vehicles are with limited vehicle range and higher charging time. So it is not suitable for the long-haul application. Hence the hydrogen fuel cell based electric vehicles are the future of the commercial electric vehicle to achieve long range, zero emission and alternate for reducing fossil fuels requirement. The hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicle range, it means the total distance covered by the vehicle in a single filling of hydrogen into the onboard cylinders. And here the prediction of the driving range is essential based on optimal parameters (vehicle acceleration, speed, trip time etc.) before the start of the trip. If the driver starts the…

Optimal Sizing and Energy Management of a Microgrid using Single and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization under Autonomous and Grid Connected mode

KCG College of Technology-Subramaniyan Valliappan
SRM Institute of Science And Technology-Suchitra Dayalan, Rajarajeswari Rathinam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0158
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The conventional energy sources are getting depleted while at the same time the energy demand keeps growing. Hence, it is important to consider non-conventional energy sources to meet the future energy demands. The renewable energy based microgrid system is one of the promising solutions to meet this increas-ing energy demand. The major parameters under consideration in a micro-grid system are cost-effectiveness, quality of service and energy management. This paper concentrates on the energy management of the Photo-voltaic/Wind based microgrid system connected to the fuel cell, microturbine and battery under Islanding (or) Autonomous mode and Grid-Connected Mode. The optimal combination of these sources with the aim of min-imizing operating cost, pollutant treatment cost and maximizing reliability using single/multi-objective particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been considered. This microgrid has also been analyzed under different strategies and the best energy management strategy is arrived at. In addition to this, the type and number of PV, Wind, and Battery to meet the forecasted demand are determined under islanding mode using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). The coding/simulation has been…

Fuel Cell-Based Powertrain Analysis for Tramway Systems

Università della Calabria-Petronilla Fragiacomo, Francesco Piraino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0248
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a comparison of three different hybrid powertrains is analysed. The numerical model is used to simulate powertrain behaviour in rail application, on a pre-set drive cycle, composed of many acceleration and decelerations, in order to test the components features. The numerical model is dynamic and it is implemented in Matlab-Simulink environmental. A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (FC) is used; it is the most used in transport applications, thanks to its lower temperature compared to the other fuel cell types, which allows fast start up operation and rapid demand changes. A standard supercapacitor (SC), given by higher power density, is utilized as the energy storage system (ESS), Regarding the battery (B), two types are considered, because the battery is used both as prime mover and main component of the ESS; Li-ion batteries are chosen, owing to their good trade-off between specific power and energy. Therefore, three configurations, FC-SC, FC-B and B-SC, are analysed. The vehicle model takes into account other components. The regenerative brake system is used to recover energy during the…

Environmental and Health Impact of Electric and Hydrogen Light Vehicles: The Case of an Italian Small City

University of Roma Tor Vergata-Luca Andreassi, Giacomo Falcucci
University of Tuscia-Andrea Luigi Facci, Stefano Ubertini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0250
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent, the electric and fuel cell electric vehicles have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and consumers. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles (PAB) popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, they are zero emission vehicles with low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances. In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB, and hydrogen fuel cell PAB. For such vehicles, the respective utilization stages are considered, i.e. without considering the manufacturing process. The analysis has been carried out comparing different vehicles performance along different routes of an…

The Ultra Low Emissions Potential of the Recuperated Split Cycle Combustion System

Dolphin N2 Ltd-Nicholas Owen
Ricardo UK Ltd-Rhys Pickett, Andrew Atkins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0189
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The recuperated split cycle engine is a fundamentally new class of internal combustion engine that offers a step change is thermal efficiency over conventional Otto and Diesel cycle engines – 50% brake thermal efficiency in its simplest form, approaching 60% with intensively cooled compression. The technology targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector where electrification is most challenging. In a split cycle engine, the compression and expansion strokes are performed in different cylinders. Waste exhaust heat is recovered between the compression and combustion cylinders via a recuperator which gives precise control of the charge temperature. Recent experimental and analytical research has shown the split cycle combustion system also has the potential to achieve ultra-low emissions. Experimental studies on a one litre single cylinder research engine, representative of a typical medium duty truck engine have showed engine out NOx emissions of less than 110ppm at mid speed – mid load, typical of a motorway cruise condition. Rigorous analysis of the impact of applying an SCR based aftertreatment system showed tailpipe NOx emissions of less than 5ppm are…

Simultaneous Optimization of Real-Time Control Strategies and Powertrain Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

University of Salerno, Italy-Marco Sorrentino, Dario Capaldo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0199
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Developing successful fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs) is nowadays considered as a highly strategic target to fully meet well known environmental and regulatory constraints. This is due to the potentially superior features of fuel cell propulsion as compared to both electric and hybrid vehicles, such as high fuel-economy, reduced tank-to-wheel environmental impact and appreciably long ranges. Successful achievement of the above-introduced challenging goal fully motivates the development of advanced mathematical tools featuring co-optimization capabilities, so as to adequately account for the strong interactions and mutual influence between design criteria and selected control strategies. To this aim, a comprehensive model of a generic FCHV architecture and a specification independent control strategy were integrated within a modular constrained optimization algorithm, which was conceived in such a way as to simultaneously find the optimal FCHV powertrain design and associated real-time applicable control strategies. Suitable design and energy management criteria, accounting for also the impact of a-priori knowledge of driving mission on proper management of available power sources, were selected. The proposed co-optimization procedure aims at determining both key…

A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency

Dolphin N2 Ltd-Nicholas Owen, Fabrizio Treccarichi
Hiflux Limited-David Barnes, Tanzi Besant
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0190
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The Recuperated Split Cycle Engine is a new type of ICE, offering a step change in efficiency and tailpipe emissions. It targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector (trucks, rail, shipping), where electrification is most challenging, and distributed generation, where capacity is required to support rising electrification. The engine separates cold (induction, compression) and hot (combustion, expansion) parts of the cycle; waste exhaust heat is recovered between them via a recuperator, as in a recuperated gas turbine. Recent research presented in another paper at this conference shows that the sonic airflows seen in the induction event give rise to extraordinary fuel mixing and clean, cool combustion, with potential for after-treated emission levels between SULEV and zero-impact (either unmeasurable or below ambient). However, recuperation and thermal insulation of the hot cylinder also enable high thermal efficiency, with a much flatter efficiency map than a conventional ICE. Combining the two attributes, and introducing sustainable fuels, places this readily manufactured, affordable technology on a par with battery-electric and fuel cell propulsion. Results from simulation to optimise the concept are…