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Numerical Modeling of Spray Formation under Flash-boiling Conditions

ANSYS Inc-Mingyuan Tao, Long Liang, Yue Wang, Ellen Meeks
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0328
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Flash boiling occurs in sprays when the ambient gas pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the injected fuel. In the present work, a numerical study was conducted to investigate solid-cone spray behaviors under various flash-boiling conditions. A new spray cone angle correlation that is a function of injection parameters was developed and used for spray initialization at the nozzle exit to capture plume interactions and the global spray shape. The spray-breakup regime control was adjusted to enable catastrophic droplet breakup, characterized by Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) breakup, near the nozzle exit. The model was validated against experimental spray data from five different injectors, including both multi-hole and single-hole injectors, with injection pressure varying from 100 to 200 bar. Different fuels, including iso-octane, n-heptane, n-pentane, ethanol, and n-butanol, were investigated under a wide range of flash-boiling conditions, in which flash boiling was induced by high injected fuel temperature, ranging from 323 to 493 K, and/or low ambient gas pressure, ranging from 0.1 bar to atmospheric. It is found that flash boiling can significantly increase the spray…
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High-Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements of Ethanol - A Co-Optima Fuel Candidate

Public Authority for Applied Education & Training-Bader Almansour
University of Central Florida-Gihun Kim, Anthony Terracciano, Subith Vasu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0332
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative (Co-Optima) of the U.S Department of Energy started investigations on several candidates of biofuels and blends for internal combustion engines. At this stage, only a few biomass-derived fuel blendstocks (including ethanol) for advanced spark-ignition engines have been selected using enhanced screening criteria, which included boiling point, toxicity, research octane number, octane sensitivity, and economical distribution system, etc. Ethanol, of which this paper is focused on, is also an important fuel because of its high-octane number which in turn promotes advance ignition timing and higher thermal efficiencies in reciprocating engines. Measurements of laminar burning velocity (LBV) is a key metric to understand fuel performance and applicability in engines. Furthermore, in order to quantify more complicated, and practical, burning regimes such as turbulent combustion much of the underlying theory requires knowledge of LBV. While there exist many studies for ethanol LBV under atmospheric conditions, there are only few studies on combustion characteristics at high pressures that are relevant to engines. Here measurements of ethanol LBVs at two initial pressures of 2…
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Development of Dual Fuel Engine Fueled with Used Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Ethanol-an Experimental Study on Performance and Combustion Characteristics

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Ramanathan Velmurugan, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Vijayabalan Palanimuthu, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Sangeethkumar Elumalai, Shridhar Anaimuthu, Vamshidhar Busireddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0803
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the performance and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition engine (CI engine) fueled with Used Cooking Oil Biodiesel (UCOB) and ethanol in dual fuel mode. In this study, UCOB was injected as the main fuel through a conventional mechanical fuel injection system. Various mass flow rates of ethanol were inducted as primary fuel through the engine intake manifold using a separate fuel injection system. Mass flow rates of ethanol were metered by an electronic control circuit. The engine test was conducted under different load conditions from no load to full load in a fully instrumented direct injection, water-cooled compression ignition engine. The results indicated that the dual fuel engine produced higher brake thermal efficiency, cylinder pressure, heat release rate with lower specific fuel consumption at a higher load condition. However, it was found that combustion characteristics improved marginally at the lower load conditions.
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Instantaneous PLII and OH* Chemiluminescence Study on Wide Distillation Fuels, PODEn and Ethanol Blends in a Constant Volume Vessel

Birmingham University-Hongming Xu
CNPC Ji Chai Power Co., Ltd.-Dong Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0340
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The combustion characteristics and soot emissions of three types of fuels were studied in a high pressure and temperature vessel. In order to achieve better volatility, proper cetane number and high oxygen content, the newly designed WDEP fuel was proposed and investigated. It is composed of wide distillation fuel (WD), PODE3-6 mixture (PODEn) and ethanol. For comparison, the test on WD and the mixture of PODEn-ethanol (EP) are also conducted. OH* chemiluminescence during the combustion was measured and instantaneous PLII was also applied to reveal the soot distribution. Abel transformation was adopted to calculate the total soot of axisymmetric flame. The results show that WDEP has similar ignition delays and flame lift-off lengths to those of WD at 870-920 K. But the initial ignition locations of WDEP flame in different cycles were more concentrated, particularly under the condition of low oxygen atmosphere. Comparing with WD, the soot amount of WDEP decreased for 55% and 27% at 870 K and 920 K. For the case of 920 K and 15.8% of ambient oxygen, the soot amount…
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The Effects of Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings on Low-Temperature Combustion

Clemson University-Ziming Yan, Brian Gainey, Benjamin Lawler
Stony Brook University-James Gohn, Deivanayagam Hariharan, John Saputo, Carl Schmidt, Felipe Caliari, Sanjay Sampath
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0275
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study was conducted on a Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder light-duty diesel research engine. Start of Injection (SOI) timing sweeps from -350 deg aTDC to -210 deg aTDC were performed on a total number of five pistons including two baseline metal pistons and three coated pistons to investigate the effects of thick thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on the efficiency and emissions of low-temperature combustion (LTC). A fuel with a high latent heat of vaporization, wet ethanol, was chosen to eliminate the undesired effects of thick TBCs on volumetric efficiency. Additionally, the higher surface temperatures of the TBCs can be used to help vaporize the high heat of vaporization fuel and avoid excessive wall wetting. A specialized injector with a 60° included angle was used to target the fuel spray at the surface of the coated piston. Throughout the experiments, the equivalence ratio, ϕ, was maintained constant at 0.4; the combustion phasing was consistently matched at 6.8 ± 0.4 deg aTDC. It can be concluded that the thick TBC cases achieved 1 to 2 percentage points…
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Onboard Ethanol-Gasoline Separation System for Octane-on-Demand Vehicle

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Hiroshi Chishima, Daiko Tsutsumi, Toru Kitamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0350
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Bioethanol is being used as an alternative fuel throughout the world based on considerations of reduction of CO2 emissions and sustainability. It is widely known that ethanol has an advantage of high anti-knock quality. In order to use the ethanol in ethanol-blended gasoline to control knocking, the research discussed in this paper sought to develop a fuel separation system that would separate ethanol-blended gasoline into a high-octane-number fuel (high-ethanol-concentration fuel) and a low-octane-number fuel (low-ethanol-concentration fuel) in the vehicle. The research developed a small fuel separation system, and employed a layout in which the system was fitted in the fuel tank based on considerations of reducing the effect on cabin space and maintaining safety in the event of a collision. The total volume of the components fitted in the fuel tank is 6.6 liters. It was demonstrated that the onboard fuel separation system possessed sufficient control performance in practical use in actual driving environments. In addition, measurements of fuel separation speed in LA4 driving cycle showed that the system was able to separate the fuel…
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Effect of Hydrous Ethanol Combined with EGR on Performance of GDI Engine

Tongji University-Yifei Duan, Xiuyong Shi, Yang Kang, Yansu Liao, Lishuang Duan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0348
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, particulate matters (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been gradually paid attention to, and the hydrous ethanol has a high oxygen content and a fast burning rate, which can effectively improve the combustion environment. In addition, Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can effectively reduce engine NOx emissions, and combining EGR technology with GDI engines is becoming a new research direction. In this study, the effects of hydrous ethanol gasoline blends on the combustion and emission characteristics of GDI engines are analyzed through bench test. The results show that the increase of the proportion of hydrous ethanol can accelerate the burning rate, shorten the combustion duration by 7°crank angle (CA), advance the peak moment of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release (RoHR) and improve the combustion efficiency. The hydrous ethanol gasoline blends can effectively improve the gaseous and PM emissions of the GDI engine. Among them, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) decrease by 10.6% and 12.2%, the concentration of PM drops by three orders of magnitude,…
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Investigations of the Emissions of Fuels with different Compositions and Renewable Fuel Components in a GDI Engine

Porsche AG-Hans-Peter Deeg, Dietmar Schwarzenthal
Technical University of Braunschweig-Michael Albrecht, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0285
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Investigations were performed, in which fuels and fuel components were compared regarding gaseous as well as particulate number (PN) emissions. The focus on the selection of the fuel components was set on the possibility of renewable production, which lead to Ethanol, as the classic bio-fuel, Isopropanol, Isobutanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). As fuels, a Euro 6 (EU6) reference fuel, an anti-spark-fouling (ASF) fuel, a European Super Plus (RON 98) in-field fuel and a potentially completely renewable fuel, which was designed by Porsche AG (named POSYN), were chosen. The composition of the fuels differs significantly which results in large differences in the exhaust gas emissions. The fuels, except ASF, are compliant with the European fuel standard EN 228.The experiments chosen were a variation of the start of injection (SOI) at different load points at a constant engine speed of 2000 rpm, amongst others. The influence of the fuel properties like boiling characteristics, fuel composition (e. g. the content of aromatic compounds), viscosity and enthalpy of vaporization were considered for interpreting the gaseous and PN emissions…
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Detailed Analyses and Correlation of Fuel Effects on Stochastic Preignition

Aramco Research Center-Vincent Costanzo
General Motors LLC-Elana Chapman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0612
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Stochastic or Low-Speed Preignition (SPI or LSPI) is an undesirable abnormal combustion phenomenon encountered in forced induction, direct injection, spark-ignition engines. It is characterized by very early heat release and high cylinder pressure and can cause knock, noise and ultimately engine damage. Much of the focus on mitigating SPI has been directed towards the engine oil formulation, leading to the emergence of the Sequence IX and second-generation GM dexos® oil requirements. Engine design, calibration and fuels all contribute to the prevalence of SPI. As part of a recently completed research consortium, a series of engine tests were completed to determine the impact of fuel composition on SPI frequency. Abnormal combustion events were identified by both high cylinder pressure and early heat release. The fuel blends had varying levels of paraffins, olefins, aromatics and ethanol. Engine tests were performed on a 2-litre turbocharged, direct-injection spark-ignition engine and comprised of multiple repeats of low-speed, high-load, steady-state test segments, interspersed with low load segments, with engine calibration and boundary conditions adjusted to amplify the appearance of SPI. Comprehensive…
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Durability Study of a Light-Duty High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using E10 Gasoline

Aramco Research Center-Tom Tzanetakis, Mark Sellnau, Vincent Costanzo, Michael Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Aniket Tekawade, Brandon Sforzo, Christopher F. Powell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0616
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a 500-hour test cycle was used to evaluate the durability of a prototype high pressure common rail injection system operating up to 1800 bar with E10 gasoline. Some aspects of the hardware were modified from their baseline design in order to accommodate an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine application and mitigate the impacts of exposure to gasoline. Overall system performance was maintained throughout testing as fueling rate and rail pressure targets were continuously achieved. Although evidence of vapor formation in the low-pressure part of the system was observed, there was no significant physical damage to the associated components. Injectors showed no deviation in their flow characteristics after exposure to gasoline and high resolution imaging of the nozzle tips and pilot valve assemblies did not indicate the presence of cavitation damage. The high pressure pump did not exhibit any performance degradation during gasoline testing and teardown analysis after 500 hours showed no evidence of cavitation erosion. Despite the lack of lubricity-improving additives in the gasoline, all other fuel-wetted components survived the test cycle without any…