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A controls overview on achieving ultra-low NOx​

Southwest Research Institute-Sandesh Rao, Jayant Sarlashkar, Sankar Rengarajan, Christopher Sharp, Gary Neely
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1404
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded Stage 3 Heavy-Duty Low NOx program focusses on evaluating different engine and after-treatment technologies to achieve 0.02g/bhp-hr of NOx emission over certification and low load cycles. This paper highlights the controls architecture of the engine and after-treatment systems and discusses the effects of various strategies implemented and tested in an engine test cell over heavy-duty drive cycles. A cylinder deactivation enabled engine was integrated with an after-treatment system consisting of a Light-Off Selective Catalytic Reduction (LO-SCR) system with a heated urea dosing system which was located close to the turbine outlet, a Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF), and a main SCR system with single point urea dosing. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) had developed a model-based controller for the main SCR system in the Stage 1 Low-NOx program. The chemical kinetics for the model-based controller were further tuned and implemented in this program to better simulate the reactions in the Stage 3 SCR system. Novel dosing, and ammonia storage management strategies created along with the model-based controls were critical in…
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Further Experiments on the Effect of Bulk In-Cylinder Temperature in the Pressurized Motoring Setup Using Argon Mixtures

Jaguar & Land Rover-Gilbert Sammut
University of Malta-Carl Caruana, Mario Farrugia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1063
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical Friction and Heat Transfer in internal combustion engines have long been studied through both experimental and numerical simulation. This proposal for publication presents a continuation study on a Pressurized Motoring Setup, which was presented in SAE paper 2018-01-0121 and found to offer robust measurements at relatively low investment and running cost. Apart from the limitation that the peak in-cylinder pressure occurs around 1DegCA BTDC, the pressurized motoring method is often criticized on the fact that the gas temperatures in motoring are much lower than that in fired engines, hence might reflect in a different FMEP measurement. In the work presented in SAE paper 2019-01-0930, pure Argon was used as the pressurization gas due to its high ratio of specific heats. This allowed to achieve higher peak in-cylinder temperatures which close further the gap between fired and motored mechanical friction tests. In 2019-24-0141, Argon was mixed in different proportions with Air to synthesize gases with different ratios of specific heats in the aim of observing any abrupt transitions in the FMEP with different peak in-cylinder…
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Using Vehicle Specifications to Gain Insights into Different Automotive Market Requirements

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Lemuel Paulraj, Saravanan Muthiah
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1283
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Determination of vehicle specifications (for example, powertrain sizing) is one of the fundamental steps in any new vehicle development process. The vehicle system engineer needs to select an optimum combination of vehicle, engine and transmission characteristics based on the product requirements received from Product Planning (PP) and Marketing teams during concept phase of any vehicle program. This process is generally iterative and requires subject matter expertise. For example, accurate powertrain sizing is essential to meet the required fuel economy (FE), performance and emission targets for different vehicle configurations. This paper analyzes existing vehicle specifications (Passenger Cars/SUVs - Gasoline/Diesel) in different automotive markets (India, Europe, US, Japan) and aims to determine underlying trends across them. Scatter band analysis is carried out for specifications such as vehicle kerb weight (WT), vehicle length (L), vehicle width (W), vehicle height (H), footprint area (FPA), engine cubic capacity (CC) and engine power (P). CC/WT vs FE, CC/FPA vs FE, P/WT vs FE, FPA/(LXW), CC/(FPAXH), FPAXH and WXH trends are analyzed amongst others. It is interesting to note that similarities exist…
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Optimal Management of Charge and Discharge of Electric Vehicles Based on CAN Bus Communication

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Haoyu Wang, Donghua Guo, Zhenyu Wang, Hanyu Zhang, Zhicheng Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1297
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the shortage of energy and the continuous development of automotive technology, electric vehicles are gradually gaining popularity. However, during the running of the electric vehicle, there is a risk of exhaustion of the electric power, and the position of the charging pile is fixed, which is likely to cause anxiety and worry of the owner. At present, there is a lack of an effective energy consumption prediction system, which is convenient for the driver to make reasonable driving planning guidance. As a standard serial communication protocol of ISO, CAN bus has a simple structure, short development cycle, stability and reliability. In this paper, the CAN bus is used to extract the dynamic parameter information of the speed, engine speed and throttle opening of the traveling vehicle in real time. At the same time, based on the GPS and cloud database, the road condition information of the expected driving section is comprehensively considered, and the real-time energy consumption prediction model of the electric vehicle is established. The predicted value is compared with the remaining electricity,…
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The Effect of Heavy-Duty Diesel Cylinder Deactivation on Exhaust Temperature, Fuel Consumption, and Turbocharger Performance below 3 bar BMEP

Eaton Corporation-James McCarthy
Southwest Research Institute-Andrew Morris
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1407
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Diesel Cylinder Deactivation (CDA) has been shown in previous work to increase exhaust temperatures, improve fuel efficiency, and reduce engine-out NOx for engine loads up to 3 or 4 bar BMEP. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the turbocharger needs to be altered when implementing CDA on a diesel engine. This study investigates effect of CDA on exhaust temperature, fuel efficiency, and turbocharger performance in a 15L heavy-duty diesel engine under low-load (0-4 bar BMEP) steady-state operating conditions. Two calibration strategies were evaluated. First, a “stay-hot” thermal management strategy in which CDA was used to increase exhaust temperature and reduce fuel consumption. Next, a “get-hot” strategy where CDA and elevated idle speed was used to increase exhaust temperature and exhaust enthalpy for rapid aftertreatment warm-up. The “stay-hot” CDA strategy demonstrated increased exhaust temperatures up to 200°C while simultaneously reducing fuel consumption by 5-40% depending on the operating condition. The “get hot” CDA strategy demonstrated up to 200°C increases in exhaust temperature in addition to 10kW increase in exhaust enthalpy over…
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Research on Solar Thermal Energy Warming Diesel Engine Based on Reverse Heat Transfer of Coolant

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Fangyu Zhou, Mi Zhou, ZhiQiang Liu, Philip Agyeman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1343
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In winter, the temperature of the coldest month is below -20℃.Low temperature makes it difficult to start a diesel engine, combust sufficiently, which increases fuel consumption and pollutes the environment. The use of electric power-driven auxiliary heating system increases the battery load and power consumption. Solar thermal energy has the advantages of easy access, clean and pollution-free. The coolant in the cylinder block of the diesel engine has a large contact area with the cylinder and is evenly distributed, which can be used as a heat transfer medium for warming up. A one-dimensional heat transfer model of the diesel engine block for the reverse heat transfer of the coolant is established, and the total heat required for the warming up is calculated by an iterative method in combination with the warming target. According to this, the matching calculation of the parameters and the establishment of the structural feature model of the heat storage device, the heat transfer element, and the solar collector are completed. The heat energy collected by the solar collector is stored in…
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Study on Multivariable Control for Air and Charging System of Gasoline Engine

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

BAIC Motor Corporation Powertrain Center, China-Fei Liu Shao
He Bei Agriculture University, China-Jiang Cai Zhen
  • Journal Article
  • 07-12-02-0006
Published 2020-02-07 by SAE International in United States
This study explores the multivariable multi-input–multi-output technique based on nonlinear models to decouple actuator interaction and to reduce the calibration workload, as well as to increase control performances, under transient conditions, and also explores the robustness on model uncertainties and system parameter variations. The development of a nonlinear dynamic physical model of air in gasoline engine and its charging system provides the for the control technology. The model uses feedback linearization control to decouple the interaction between actuators and compensate the nonlinearity. A new set of inputs was defined through inversing the differential equation of the system. The relationship between the new inputs and the output is linear and decoupled. In addition, a linear control module is used to ensure transient and steady-state performance as well as closed-loop robustness. The control method has been confirmed on the bench test with a three-cylinder gasoline engine prototype for hybrid electric vehicles. Transient test results show that the controller is able to coordinate the actuator to achieve the targets.
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Implementation and Optimization of a Variable-Speed Coolant Pump in a Powertrain Cooling System

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Navistar International Corp., USA-Michael C. Keblusek
Northern Illinois University, USA-Kyu Taek Cho
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-04-0020
Published 2020-02-07 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates methods to precisely control a coolant pump in an internal combustion engine. The goal of this research is to minimize power consumption while still meeting optimal performance, reliability and durability requirements for an engine at all engine-operating conditions. This investigation achieves reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions, and improved powertrain performance. Secondary impacts include cleaner air for the earth, reduced operating costs for the owner, and compliance with US regulatory requirements. The study utilizes mathematical modeling of the cooling system using heat transfer, pump laws, and boiling analysis to set limits to the cooling system and predict performance changes. The models are correlated with physical test data of one internal combustion engine, and a map is generated for allowable pump-speed reductions over all the conditions of engine speeds and torques, which provides insight into thermal behavior in the cooling loop and critical information to conduct optimal thermal design. It is found that speed-variable coolant pump could reduce the pump power up to 97%, and it could save the overall engine power consumption by…
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Research on Control Target of Truck Platoon Based on Maximizing Fuel Saving Rate

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Jilin University, China-Hongyu Zheng, Jianjun Wu, Kaiqiang Pan, Wanjia Meng, Rui Li
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-02-0010
Published 2020-02-04 by SAE International in United States
In view of the inability of traditional constant spacing policy to maximize the fuel saving rate of the truck platoon when choosing the smaller desired vehicle spacing as the control target, a new control strategy is proposed in this article. This strategy dramatically reduces the fuel consumption of the truck platoon from the start to the formation of a stable platoon, thus greatly increasing the fuel saving rate of the platoon. To prove the effectiveness of the strategy, this article carried out the longitudinal dynamics modeling of the truck and the modeling of the fuel consumption model of engine first. Longitudinal dynamics modeling establishes the dynamic equations for truck braking and nonbraking. The fuel consumption model of engine is built using a three-dimensional map. Second, the design of the controller is described. The controller calculates the desired acceleration of the following vehicle based on the speed error and the following distance error. The longitudinal dynamic equation of the truck is used to derive the desired engine torque or the desired braking torque of the following…
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High-Dimensional Adaptive Test Design Including Boundary Search

SAE International Journal of Engines

Germany-Nino Sandmeier
Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg, Germany-Gian Mewes
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0018
Published 2020-02-04 by SAE International in United States
This article investigates an adaptive test design approach for the purpose of a model-based engine calibration. Two different new algorithms are presented to take engine boundaries during test execution into account and selectively calculate new test points to increase engine model quality and its input domain. The algorithms are implemented into an adaptive test design framework and evaluated by an engine simulation with artificial Brownian noise added. The results highlight an increase in input space evaluation volume and a decrease in engine model error, while meeting calculation time constraints.