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Materials for DPF and its Cleaning Methodologies

ARAI Academy-Kamalkishore Vora, Kartik Gurnule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2565
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Accumulation of ash in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) with engine operating over the time is a major concern for all vehicle manufacturers, with BS VI and BS VII emission norms mandating the use of DPF. Ash deposition leads to increase in pressure drop across the filter and more frequent regeneration pattern, which can lead to sintering. It can hamper the capacity of soot loading, properties of DPF substrate material and can lower catalyst activity in case of Catalysed-DPF. Hence, removal of ash is important by defining the DPF cleaning methods. Primary source of ash is lubricant oil, taking part in the combustion. Lubricant additives like detergents and anti-wear agents are responsible for formation of metallic ash inside the DPF. Secondary source of metallic ash is fuel and engine wear out. The present paper elucidates the preparation of DPF samples including coating and canning of DPF substrates, with proper GBD. Pressure drop and weight with and without coating is estimated and validated through actual measurement of fresh as well as soot loaded samples. Soot loading…
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Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K A Subramanian
Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Verinder Kumar Bathla, Reji Mathai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2511
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen has low ignition energy ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture of H2+air also. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant volume which enhances the thermal efficiency of hydrogen fuelled IC engine. High octane number of hydrogen makes it suitable for its application in Spark ignition (SI) engines. Since the hydrogen combustion in spark ignition engine generates water which can interfere with the lubricant performance, different lubricant is to be developed for this purpose. In this background, the present work is aimed at the development of dedicated lubricant for hydrogen fuelled SI engine. This paper presents the various parameters required for evaluating different lubricants for hydrogen fuelled genset. Existing CNG genset has been converted into hydrogen genset with modification in intake manifold assembly, engine hardware system, ECU modification with adequate modification in exhaust system. State of…
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Morphological Characterization of Gasoline Soot-in-Oil: Development of Semi-Automated 2D-TEM and Comparison with Novel High-Throughput 3D-TEM

University of Nottingham-Ephraim Haffner-Staton, Antonino La Rocca, Alasdair Cairns, Michael Fay
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0042
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Characterization of soot nanoparticle morphology can be used to develop understanding of nanoparticle interaction with engine lubricant oil and its additives. It can be used to help direct modelling of soot-induced thickening, and in a more general sense for combatting reductions in engine efficiency that occur with soot-laden oils. Traditional 2D transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization possesses several important shortcomings related to accuracy that have prompted development of an alternative 3D characterization technique utilizing electron tomography, known as 3D-TEM. This work details progress made towards facilitating semi-automated image acquisition and processing for location of structures of interest on the TEM grid. Samples were taken from a four cylinder 1.4 L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine operated in typically extra-urban driving conditions for 20,284 km, with automatic cylinder deactivation enabled. Soot nanoparticles were extracted from the used oil drawn from the sump, and prepared on TEM support grids. From a feedstock of chosen grid locations, 30 soot nanoparticles were reconstructed and characterized in 3D and morphological characterization results compared to those derived using 2D-TEM. Results…
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Global Tests and Specifications for Automotive Engine Oils

Fuels and Lubricants TC 1 Engine Lubrication
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2227_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-08 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report lists engine and laboratory tests for service fill engine oils which are associated with specifications and classifications established outside of SAE J304 and SAE J183. These specifications and classifications include those developed prior to April 1, 2017, by international technical societies, as well as individual original equipment manufacturers. The information contained within this report applies to engine oils utilized in gasoline- and diesel-powered automotive vehicles.
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Enhanced Fuel Economy Retention from an Ultra-Low Ash Heavy Duty Engine Oil

Chevron Lubricants-Shawn Whitacre, Wim Van Dam
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Diesel particulate filters are remarkably efficient in reducing emissions of particulate matter from heavy-duty diesel engines. However, their efficiency and performance are negatively impacted by contaminants derived from consumed engine lubricant. This accumulation of incombustible ash imparts a fuel economy penalty due to increased system backpressure and demand for more frequent regeneration events. This study documents a systematic evaluation of lubricant impacts on DPF ash loading, system performance, and fuel economy. A novel, ultra-low ash heavy-duty engine oil demonstrates significant advantages in aged systems when compared to tests using conventional lubricants. The ultra-low ash oil yields a significantly lower ash loading that is also more dense therefore offering extended DPF maintenance interval and potential for 3% fuel economy retention benefit. These advantages offer potential for significant reduction in cost to operate and maintain a DPF equipped engine.
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Gas Content in Lubricants of Modern Powertrain Systems - Development of a Continuous Volumetric Measurement Method

FEV Europe GmbH-Peter Theisen, Kolja Orlowsky
Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Benedikt Hammermueller, Daniel Hanciogullari
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Our expectations in lubrication systems applied in modern powertrains are continually rising. Beginning with the basic function of cooling and lubricating tribological contacts such as cylinder liner and piston, bearings, gears, chain drives and various valve train contacts, the oil in the lubrication system is now increasingly being used as a hydraulic fluid. Examples are (fully) variable valve trains, variable compression ratio systems or complicated transmission hydraulics. Driven by the general trend to minimize mechanical losses in order to increase the overall powertrain efficiency, the introduction of variable capacity oil pumps is commonly seen in latest engine designs. The potential to decrease oil pressure levels and volumetric oil flow in order to minimize mechanical losses on the one hand significantly complicates the reliable fulfillment of the aforementioned tasks of the lube systems on the other hand. In this context one of the core parameters for a reliable operation of modern lubrication systems in engines and transmissions is the gas content of the oil. Even though this circumstance is still partially underestimated during engine development, it…
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Automotive Gear Lubricant Viscosity Classification

Fuels and Lubricants TC 3 Driveline and Chassis Lubrication
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J306_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard defines the limits for a classification of automotive gear lubricants in rheological terms only. Other lubricant characteristics are not considered.
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Achieving Ultra-Low Oil Consumption in Opposed Piston Two-Stroke Engines

Achates Power, Inc.-Dan Chown, John Koszewnik, Ryan MacKenzie, Dan Pfeifer, Brian Callahan, Manny Vittal
Da Vinci Technologies-Kent Froelund
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The opposed piston two-stroke (OP2S) engine architecture is widely recognized for its improved fuel efficiency relative to a four-stroke engine. Achates Power Inc. seeks to demonstrate the market readiness of the OP2S engine by proving competitive in other important areas, one of which is oil consumption. Achieving oil consumption competitive to modern four-stroke engines is thus a key step in bringing OP2S technology to market. Two-stroke engines have historically suffered from higher engine lube oil consumption and subsequent emissions and durability challenges. This is primarily due to two main features of traditional two-stroke engines; the direct interaction of the piston skirt and rings with the intake and/or exhaust ports, which results in a direct leak path for lube oil to the combustion chamber and/or exhaust manifold, and crankcase-scavenged architectures which entrain oil into air being pumped through the crankcase. The OP2S engine architecture directly addresses these concerns by utilizing intake and exhaust manifolds, a closed crankcase system, and oil control rings which operate outboard of the ports. Previous work has shown the importance of careful…
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Engine oil from Christmas trees and flashlight batteries

Automotive Engineering: July/August 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP08_15
Published 2019-01-01 by SAE International in United States

What is the connection between a Christmas tree, chewing gum, used fry oil and 14 flashlight batteries? Answer: Together with some other commonly used items, this incongruous recipe can be turned into a liter of automotive-quality engine oil-not formally analyzed for a specification but approximating to an SAE 0W20 by Nexcel, a BP innovation business.

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Evaluation of Gas Turbine Engine Lubricant Compatibility with Elastomer Slabs - Long Duration Test

E-34 Propulsion Lubricants Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6917
  • Current
Published 2018-12-10 by SAE International in United States
This test method provides procedures for exposing specimens of elastomer material (slab form) representative to those used in gas turbine engines to aviation lubricants under extended duration and engine relevant thermal conditions. For AS5780 requirements the time is at least 1800 hours and temperatures are 100 °C to 160 °C. Positive volume change is an indication of specimen swell and subsequent negative volume change is an indication of specimen deterioration, both properties are important in the evaluation of the compatibility of the lubricant with elastomers used in the construction of the gas turbine.
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