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Development of Dual Fuel Engine Fuelled with Used Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Ethanol-an Experimental Study on performance and combustion characteristics

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Ramanathan Velmurugan, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Vijayabalan Palanimuthu, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Sangeethkumar Elumalai, Shridhar Anaimuthu, Vamshidhar Busireddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0803
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper is to investigate the performance and combustion characteristics of compression ignition engine fuelled with ethanol enhanced used cooking oil biodiesel. In this study, used cooking oil biodiesel was injected through a regular fuel injection system and ethanol of various flow rates was inducted through the intake manifold to improve the air-fuel homogeneity in the cylinder. This injection flow rate was metered by an electronic control unit. The engine test was conducted in different load conditions from no load to full load in a fully instrumented direct injection water-cooled compression ignition engine. The results indicated that the engine produced higher brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, carbon dioxide emissions, cylinder peak pressure, peak heat release rate, ignition delay and lower combustion duration at higher rated power condition. However, the combustion characteristics of ethanol enhanced used cooking oil biodiesel was found marginal decrease at low rated power conditions in comparison to that of diesel.
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Evaluation Methodologies of Dynamically Reconfigurable Systems in the Automotive Industry

BMW Group-Florian Oszwald, Ruben Bertelo
Karlsruhe Institute Of Technology-Juergen Becker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1363
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The technology for self-driving cars and other highly-automated applications are becoming more and more advanced. At the same time, Electrical/Electronic (E/E) architectures are becoming more complex. Classical decentralized E/E architectures based on a large number of Electronic Control Units (ECU) represent an obstacle for the realization of new applications due to the computational power, energy consumption, weight, and the size of embedded components constraints in the automotive industry. Therefore the adoption of new embedded centralized E/E architectures represents a new opportunity to tackle these challenges. However, they also raise concerns and questions about their safety, hence, an appropriate evaluation must be performed to guarantee that safety requirements resulting from an Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) according to the standard ISO 26262 are met. In this paper, an evaluation of a dynamically reconfigurable system implemented on a centralized architecture is presented. The parameters evaluated are centered in reliability, probability of failure and possible trade-offs through the implementation of redundancy into reprogrammable devices and its performance parameters. The method used is divided into three stages. The first…
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Effective Utilization of Low Carbon Fuels in Agricultural Engines Using Low Cost Electronic Primary Fuel Injection Unit

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Sasikumar Nandagopal, Shridhar Anaimuthu, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Selvakumar Raja, Vamshidhar Busireddy, Madhu Kovuru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reliability and cost effectiveness of electronics demand its usage in all the wings of science and technology. Thus an attempt was made in this work to investigate the potential of using electronics for injecting primary fuel for the compression ignition engine used by farmers for agricultural purpose. In the first phase of the work, new Electronic Control Unit (ECU) for primary fuel injection was developed and tested for its repeatability on fuel injection quantity for the different input voltages. Test engine was developed and tested under various load condition for its performance, emission, and combustion characteristics with neat diesel and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) as baseline readings in the second phase of the work. In the third phase of the work, developed engine was modified to operate in duel fuel mode with developed ECU. In this work, ethanol was chosen as primary fuel due to its availability and less toxic nature as compared to other green fuels. Pilot fuel (i.e. WCOME) was injected using mechanical fuel injection system. Results inferred that the brake…
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ROS and XCP in Traditional ECU Development

ETAS Inc.-Tobias Gutjahr, Matthew Roddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1367
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Originally developed for the service robot industry, the Robot Operating System (ROS) has lately received a lot of attention from the automotive sector with use cases, especially, in the area of advanced driver assistance systems and autonomous driving (ADAS/AD). Introduced as communication framework on top a of a host operating system, the value proposition of ROS is to simplify the software development in large-scale heterogeneous computing systems. Developers can focus on the application layer and let ROS handle the discovery of all participants in the system and establish communication in-between them. Despite the recent success of ROS, standardized automotive communication protocols such as the Universal Measurement and Calibration Protocol (XCP) are still dominant in the electronic control unit (ECU) development of traditional vehicle subsystems like engine, transmission, braking system, etc. XCP guarantees that common measurement and calibration tools can be used across different vehicles with ECUs from multiple suppliers. With the advancing area of ADAS/AD, we also expect the presence of ROS-based modules in the development of new vehicle platforms to increase. In this paper,…
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Development of New Power Control Unit with Small Size and Low Cost for Small Hybrid Vehicle with two-motor Hybrid System

Honda R & D-Yuichiro Ueno, Yasuhiko Kondo
Keihin Corp.-Kenichi Nonaka, Kenichi Takebayashi, Yukiya Kashimura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0458
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new power control unit (PCU) has been developed for 2020 Honda small hybrid vehicle with a 2-motor hybrid system. For small hybrid vehicles, downsizing and reducing costs of hybrid systems are main challenges. As such, the newly developed PCU was strongly required to be small and affordable. To satisfy the requirements for the PCU, new technologies and components have been introduced such as an all-in-one type intelligent power module (IPM) with integrated functions and reverse conducting IGBT (RC-IGBT), a new control sequence for voltage control unit (VCU), and PCU packaging to improve cooling performance. The new IPM has a printed-circuit board (PCB) equipped with an electric control unit (ECU) and gate drive circuits, 7 current sensors, and a power module with RC-IGBTs. This functional integration led to a reduction in the number of main electrical PCU assembly components from 9 in the previous PCU to 2 in the new PCU. In addition, the number of mounted parts on PCBs was reduced from 2,200 to 1,300 by means of the integration of ECU and gate…
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Effect of a Cylinder Deactivation Actuator with Electro-mechanical Switching System on Fuel Economy of an Automotive Engine

Motonic Corporation-Dong Hyeong Lee, Wan Jae Jeon, Yong Seok Hong, Jong Wung Park
University of Ulsan-Dojoong Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1408
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we present a cylinder deactivation actuator(CDA), one of the variable valve actuation mechanism, in response to strengthening CO2 and environmental regulations in major countries around the world. CDA is the most commonly used variable valve actuation system to improve the fuel efficiency and power of automotive engines, and minimizes fuel consumption by deactivating some of the cylinders during operation. Most CDA systems employ hydraulic switching systems. However, the critical problem with hydraulic switching system is that the oil temperature and pressure affect the dynamic and operating performance of the CDA system. This is a major obstacle in achieving the goal of the CDA system to improve fuel efficiency and engine performance. This paper introduces a two-step CDA mechanism equipped with an electronic switching system, which can be applied to OHC valve trains with end pivot rocker arms and can operate two valves simultaneously with a single cam. In addition, roller bearings are applied to the base cam contacts in order to fundamentally improve the wear problem which is often present in CDA…
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On Road Fuel Economy Impact by the Aerodynamic Specifications under the Natural Wind

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Yasuyuki Onishi, Kenta Ogawa, Jun Sawada, Youji Suwa, Fortunato Nucera
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0678
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to some papers, the label fuel economy and the actual fuel economy experienced by the customers may exhibit a gap. One of the reasons may stem from the aerodynamic drag variations due to the natural wind. The fuel consumptions are measured on the bench test under the several driving modes by using the road load as input conditions. The road load is measured through the coast down test under less wind ambient conditions as determined by each regulation. The present paper aims to analyze the natural wind specifications encountered by the vehicle on the public road and to operate a comparison between the fuel consumptions and the driving energy. In this paper, the driving energy is calculated by the aerodynamic drag from the natural wind specifications and driving conditions. This driving energy and the fuel consumptions show good correlation. The fuel consumption is obtained from the vehicle ECU data. The driving energy is calculated by the aerodynamic drag and the vehicle driving conditions through the time history data on the road. Aerodynamic drag is…
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Computation of Safety Architecture for Electric Power Steering System and Compliance with ISO 26262

Oakland University-Saif Salih, Richard Olawoyin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0649
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays and with the advancement of the automotive industry, functional safety has become one of the most significant challenges for autonomous and connected vehicles. The automotive industry is transforming from conventional driving technology where the driver or the human being is a part of the control loop to fully autonomous development and self-driving mode. The SAE levels of autonomy define level 4 by (These automated driving features will not require you to take over driving). Thus, more and more safety-related electronically controlled units ECUs are deployed in the control module of the vehicle. As a result, more complexity of system architecture, software, and hardware are interacting and interfacing which increases the risk of both systematic and random hardware failures. In order to reduce these risks and avoid any potential failure or loss of control, ISO 26262 was introduced and developed to guide the automotive original equipment manufacturer OEMs and suppliers to ensure an adequate and acceptable level of safety procedures are implemented. This study focuses on the EPS systems and their ASIL assignement. It was…
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Applications of Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation in Automotive Embedded Systems

General Motors LLC-Nadeem Ahmad, Aidong Meng, Myrna Sultan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1289
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is an advanced technique for development and testing of complex real-time embedded systems. This technique has greatly developed in the last decades and has been more and more used in automotive industries for algorithm and software development, hardware validation, safety validation, and fault investigation activities. Plant simulation model executes in HIL simulator to provide a virtual vehicle that interacts in an open-loop or closed-loop way with the embedded system that is under test. Comparing to in-vehicle testing, HIL simulation provides benefits of low cost, high availability, high flexibility, repeatability, and test automation capability. HIL simulation reduces the risk caused by control failure, which is especially important for self-driving control system development and testing. The HIL simulation system is more application specific. Hardware configuration and plant simulation model should be developed in a way to fulfill the application requirements. In this paper, several HIL systems have been presented for powertrain Electronic Control Units (ECU) validation and verification (v&v), self-driving algorithm development, propulsion and battery ECU tests for hybrid and electric vehicles, respectively. Application…
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Virtual Switches and Indicators in Automotive Displays

General Motors LLC-Scott Rush
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1362
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Over the last decade, graphical and touch displays have become commonplace in automobile cockpits. Such displays have been used mainly for convenience functions such as navigation, radio, driver information, and vehicle settings. Automakers are now using these displays to generate “virtual” indicators that replace regulated and/or safety-critical physical indicators, such as gear position indication or the Malfunction Indicator Light [MIL]. Automakers are also replacing physical switches and controls, such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning [HVAC] controls, with “virtual” controls rendered on the cockpit touch-screen. Many of these indicators and controls have regulatory and/or functional safety requirements that have been met using such methods as redundant terminals in a safety-critical switch, or by monitoring the electrical State-of-Health [SOH] of discrete LED indicators. Meeting these requirements with “virtual” graphical elements requires new electronic hardware and software technologies. This paper discusses recent advances in electronic hardware and System-on-Chip [SoC] solutions, operating systems, and supporting software architecture implementation of regulatory and/or functional safety graphics within cockpit displays. Application of the ISO 26262 standard, particularly section 5, and considerations…