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Aerodynamic analysis of electric passenger car using wind turbine concept at front end

ARAI Academy-Snehil Mendiratta, Sugat Sharma
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2396
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of the work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Active front grill shutters will be used to optimize the aerodynamic drag at different vehicle speeds. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and then it is validated with the scaled model by using wind tunnel testing. The modified model is designed with wind turbines and with add-on-devices - vortex generator, spoiler and diffuser and then simulated. Based on the simulation carried out in ANSYS Fluent, our scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in Wind Tunnel for validation. A successful reduction in the Drag Coefficient by 5.9% is achieved.
 

Performance & efficiency Improvement of Electric Vehicle Power train

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Devesh Pareek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2483
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b. Optimization of Design Specs and duty cycle based on real world driving cycles. c. Innovative Heat dissipation techniques to minimize energy loss to heat. d. Efficient Electrical to Chemical Energy conversion and vice versa through use of optimization techniques based on…
 

Realtime Tuning and optimization of EV traction motors with controllers on E-motor testbench

A R A I-Manoj Desai
Automotive Research Association of India-Monishram Venkataram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2478
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter. The output torque is primarily estimated from phase currents and forms as the feedback to alter the input to the drives. In closed loop control, the electric power train is run with either speed control or…
 

Compensation of Signal Offset, Amplitude Imbalance and Imperfect Quadrature in Rotor Position Sensor Signals for Motor Drives

Samiksha Meshram-Samiksha Meshram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2524
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the use of the electric motors in automotive applications such as electric power steering (EPS), hybrid and electric vehicles has increased. In these fields, rotor position information plays and important role in the field- oriented control concept. It performs a transformation from the stator reference frame to the rotor reference frame and vice versa. This is nothing but the Park and inverse Park transformation. They are typically used to provide accurate absolute rotor position in high-performance motor drive systems because their robustness and reliability make them particularly suited to Automotive Environment. Hence, greater accuracy of these sensor signals is required. However, in reality, the output signals include the position error in the sensor itself as well as error in the sensor signal conditioning circuits. The actual sensor signals have non ideal characteristics such as amplitude imbalance, imperfect quadrature, inductive harmonics, reference phase shift, excitation signal distortion, and disturbance signals. Due to the non-ideal characteristics of these signals, the position information of the Motor is considerably distorted. To solve this problem, the compensation…
 

Feasibility of Multiple Piston Motion Control Approaches in a Free Piston Engine Generator

West Virginia Univ.-Mehar Bade, Nigel Clark, Parviz Famouri, PriyaankaDevi Guggilapu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2599
To be published on 2019-10-28 by SAE International in United States
The design optimization and control of Free Piston Linear Engine (FPLE) has been found to be difficult as each independent variable changes the dynamics with respect to time. These dynamics, in turn, alters the alternator and engine response to other governing variables. As a result, the FPLE system necessitates an energy balance control algorithm with high-speed dynamic response for stable operation and perhaps optimized system efficiency. The main objective of this control algorithm is to match the power generated by the engine to the power demanded by the alternator. This energy balance control is similar to the use of a governor to control the crankshaft rotational speed in a conventional crankshaft driven engine. In addition to that, when stiff springs are added to the FPLE system, the dynamics becomes more sinusoidal and more consistent with increasing spring stiffness. To understand the cycle-to-cycle variations, a comprehensive FPLE numerical model with a 1kW target electric power was developed in MATLAB®/Simulink. An FPLE system corresponding to that numerical model has been operated in the laboratory. In this numerical…
 

Amelioration of modular mobility by adopting split cell solar panel cleaning and cooling therof

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Ajith Raja, Arunpragash Mohana Sundaram, Ashwanth Pranav Selvamani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0078
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In photovoltaic system the efficiency of solar cells is determined in combination with latitude and climate. The electricity generation in photovoltaic cell is more in the morning time than in the afternoon time. This is due to the fact that an increase in solar cell temperature leads to a decrease in efficiency of the solar panel. This work aims to provide necessary cooling to the solar panel for favourable output during noon time. Normally electrical modular vehicles use non-split cell solar panels. In order to increase the efficiency, we are using split cell solar panel as it increases voltage by halving the size of the silicon chips. Thus, halving the cells results in increasing efficiency and lowering the operation temperature. The solar panel should be maintained at a particular temperature by adopting sprinkling of water method in solar panel for hybrid vehicles. The proposed system consists of storage tank, temperature sensor, water sprinkle jets attached to the hybrid vehicle. When the temperature increases beyond the limit, the temperature sensor provides signal to the water jets…
 

Combustion Characteristics of Ammonia in a Modern Spark-Ignition Engine

Universite D'Orléans-Pierre BREQUIGNY, Christine Rousselle
Université D'Orléans-Charles Lhuillier
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0237
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Ammonia is now recognized as a very serious asset in the context of the hydrogen energy economy, thanks to its non-carbon nature, competitive energy density and very mature production, storage and transport processes. If produced from renewable sources, its use as a direct combustion fuel could participate to the flexibility in the power sector as well as help mitigating fossil fuel use in certain sectors, such as long-haul shipping. However, ammonia presents unfavorable combustion properties, requiring further investigation of its combustion characteristics in practical systems. In the present study, a modern single-cylinder spark-ignition engine is fueled with gaseous ammonia/air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and intake pressures. The results are compared with methane/air and previous ammonia/hydrogen/air measurements, where hydrogen is used as combustion promoter. In-cylinder pressure and exhaust concentrations of selected species are measured and analyzed. Results show that ammonia is a very suitable fuel for SI engine operation, since high power outputs were achieved with satisfying efficiency by taking advantage of the promoting effects of either hydrogen enrichment or increased intake pressure, or a…
 

Optical Spray Investigations on OME3-5 in a Constant Volume High Pressure Chamber

FEV Europe GmbH-Sandra Glueck, Markus Schoenen
RWTH Aachen Univ.-Christian Honecker, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0234
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Synthetic fuels generated with surplus renewable electricity, water and captured CO2, so called E-fuels, offer the possibility to easily store excess energy over long periods of time. Therefore, the ALIGN-CCUS-project seeks to use them for power-generation and as a fuel for the transport-sector. Polyoxymethylene-dimethyl-ethers (POMDMEs, short: OME) are promising E-fuels for passenger-car applications. Their molecular structure is CH3-O-(CH2O)n-CH3. For passenger-car applications, OME-mixtures with n between 3 and 5 seem most suitable, as the mixture is liquid under normal ambient conditions, offers a high cetane-number and sufficient lubricity. Their high flash-point, low toxicity and good miscibility with conventional diesel-fuel also may ease their market-introduction. The lack of direct C-C-bonds within their molecule and the high oxygen-content lead to very low soot-emissions, thus attenuating the NOx-soot-tradeoff through higher EGR-rates which are required for lowest NOx raw-emissions. However, oxygenated fuels such as OME offer a lower heating value and a different evaporation-behavior compared to conventional diesel-fuel. This leads to differences in spray-formation and ignition-delay. In order to determine the mixture formation characteristics and the combustion behavior of neat…
 

Performance and Emissions of an Advanced Multi-Cylinder SI Engine Operating in Ultra-Lean Conditions

Renault SA-Cédric LIBERT
University of Naples “Federico II”-Fabio Bozza, Daniela Tufano, Enrica Malfi, Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0075
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Along the design process of a new engine, the calibration phase at the test bench usually involves a relevant percentage of the overall time-to-market. Each control variable, in fact, needs to be properly selected to optimize the performance and emissions, complying with thermal and mechanical stresses limits of the engine. This issue is still more critical for advanced engine architectures, which include additional control variables, such as valve phasing, turbocharger control, EGR level, etc. The aim of this work is the development of a numerically performed calibration procedure, applied to a prototype multi-cylinder Spark Ignition (SI) engine, designed to operate at very lean mixtures. To this aim, an active Pre-Chamber ignition system is considered. The required air flow rate is indeed provided by a Low-Pressure (LP) variable geometry turbocharger group, coupled to a high-pressure e-compressor. A Variable Valve Timing (VVT) device is also selected to reduce pumping losses at low load and for knock control at high-load. For the above engine, seven control variables have to be fixed in each operating condition, namely the Air/Fuel…
 

Modelling of a Spark Ignition Engine with Turbo-Generator for Energy Recovery

Istituto Motori CNR - Napoli-Luigi De Simio, Sabato Iannaccone
NETCOM Group - Napoli-Fabio Arminio
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0084
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent regulations in the field of pollutant and CO2 are forcing engine manufacturers to adopt new solutions to contain exhaust emissions, such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) or Full Electric Vehicles (FEV). Still far from the wide diffusion of FEV limited from electrochemical storage systems together with the difficulty of creating adequate infrastructure distributed throughout the territory to recharging batteries, at present HEVs seems to be a better solution. The hybrid vehicle is already able to guarantee satisfactory autonomy and low pollution levels by combining the advantages offered by the two technologies of thermal and electric propulsion. Currently on the market there are several types of hybrid vehicles, with different degree of hybridization (depending of the electric power of the motor generators installed), capacity to store electricity and type of scheme constructive adopted for the integration between the thermal engine and the electric machines. A particular interest is getting the mild-hybrid (or light hybridization) and the micro-hybrid (or minimum hybridization) with 48V electrical system added to the common 12V one. In this field, a…