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An Application of Vehicle Accurate Fault Isolation and Prognostic Maintenance

Xiaoli Li
HeFei University of Technology-Yujie Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1081
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As Internet of things for vehicle is getting more and more attention and developing strength, how to release the data power on vehicle safety and usability is a valuable topic to research.Accurate fault isolation and prognostic maintenance is one of the most promising application direction, since it can reduce maintenance time, achieve more asset availability, and promote reliability and safety. In this paper, a comprehensive approach which combined with model-based and knowledge-based method is proposed to addressing the challenges. This paper also presents an application using the comprehensive approach applied in vehicle electric power steering(EPS) system. It can help maintenance person to quickly find out the root cause of the failures in a vehicle. Component and system behaving modes are collected for vehicle manufacture user to access vehicle health status.

Optimization and Evaluation of 12V/48V Architectures based on EDS Simulation and real Drive Cycles

University of Kassel-Ludwig Brabetz, Mohamed Ayeb, Daniel Sebastiao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0482
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Both the rising number of electrical systems and the electrical part of the powertrain is considerably increasing the electrical power requirements of vehicles. As a consequence, multiple voltage supply levels have been introduced. However, even if only the 12V/48V configuration is considered, as in this paper, the number of possible electrical distribution system (EDS) architectures is strongly enlarged. Additional degrees of freedom are the allocation of the loads to the voltage levels, the dimensioning of new components, and the control strategy. Hence, the optimization of such architectures must be based on simulation, which allows the evaluation of a multitude of variants and test scenarios within an acceptable time frame. While strict cost, weight, and quality constraints must be upheld, the stability of the voltage supply is a major focus because a significant part of future electrical systems is highly safety-critical. In this paper, quantitative quality criteria for the evaluation of the voltage stability are applied which enable a systematic assessment of the performance of an EDS. The presented approach is based on a modular simulation…

HyPACE – Hybrid Petrol Advanced Combustion Engine – Advanced Boosting System for Extended Stoichiometric Operation and Improved Dynamic Response

BorgWarner Turbo Systems-Andrew Taylor
Jaguar Land Rover-Jonathan Hartland, James Harris
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0325
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The HyPACE (Hybrid Petrol Advanced Combustion Engine) project is a part UK government funded research project established to develop a high thermal efficiency petrol engine optimised for hybrid vehicle applications. The project combines the capabilities of a number of partners (Jaguar Land Rover, Borg Warner, MAHLE Powertrain, Johnson Matthey, Cambustion and Oxford University) with the target of achieving a 10% vehicle fuel consumption reduction, whilst still achieving a 90 to 100 kW/litre power rating through the novel application of a combination of new technologies. The donor engine for the project was Jaguar Land Rover’s new Ingenium 4-cylinder petrol engine which includes an advanced continuously variable intake valve actuation mechanism. The new HyPACE boosting system utilises a Borg Warner 48V eTurbo™ featuring a variable geometry turbine which enables the capability to both provide electrical assistance, to improve dynamic response when required, as well as being able to utilise waste exhaust gas energy to generate electricity. This paper presents results from a testing programme which demonstrates the capability of the new boosting system to extend the stoichiometric…

Development of Evaluation Methods for Electric Power Steering Loss of Assist

General Motors-Ibrahim A. Badiru, Valarie Boatman, Steve Gornick, Brian Latouf, Peter Shear, Richard Krentz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1236
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Over the last 10 years Electric Power Steering (EPS) has become the most popular steering technology for passenger vehicles due to energy efficiency, customer performance, and driving features. In parallel with this technological shift to EPS has been a similar shift in industry and governmental perspectives regarding the severity of the steering loss of assist (LoA) state. In many first and second generation EPS systems removal of power assist was viewed as a ‘safe state’ and was the default diagnostic action taken with the detection of any moderate to severe system fault. Today LoA is viewed as a Hazard in many operational scenarios, but despite this increased attention there currently are no published standards, metrics, or test protocols for the evaluation of vehicle performance in a Loss of Assist situation. The first part of this paper will examine the reasons prompting changes in the industry mindset regarding acceptability of LoA, review common assist failure causes in the EPS system, and analyze situational factors impacting human vehicle controllability during a LoA event. The second part of…

A Drive-by-Wire Conversion of an FMVSS-500 Vehicle for Autonomous Driving Applications

University of Detroit Mercy-Viken Yeranosian, Nayan Patel, Joseph Vega, Utayba Mohammad, Mark Paulik, Michael Santora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0704
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous driving has witnessed many developments in the past decade. Most automotive manufacturers and technology companies have been investing in the software and platform development of these vehicles and long strides have been made in this domain. Nonetheless, academia has been partially isolated from the practical efforts of these developments, due to the cost involved in converting a standard vehicle into a drive-by-wire platform suitable for self- driving vehicular research. In this paper, a low-cost autonomous vehicle platform is developed and the process for converting a Gem Polaris e2 FMVSS-500 vehicle to brake-by-wire, throttle-by-wire, and steer-by-wire is elaborated. The tools and the procedures followed here were all conducted by students, in house, and can be easily duplicated for other FMVSS-500 compatible vehicles. Discussions include the interface of an embedded controller for an electric power steering system, electronic control of hydraulic brake pressure, and modulation of vehicle velocity and acceleration. Complete system operation via remote control is demonstrated.

Analysis and Research on Vibration Characteristics of Reclaiming Energy Suspension Based on Adjustable Load

Chongqing University-Zheng Ling, Wu Hang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0453
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Wheel-side drive electric vehicle is electric vehicle that uses wheel motor to drive wheel directly. Because of the introduction of the hub motor, the quality of the vehicle's non-spring load increases obviously, not only affects the ride comfort, but also reduces the driving safety. Active suspension can significantly improve overall vehicle performance, but high energy consumption has been one of the main factors restricting its promotion in the market. The use of an electromagnetic linear motor as the actuator of the active suspension provides an opportunity for this contradictory solution. Using the principle of electromagnetic induction, the linear motor can transform the vibration energy of the vehicle into the electricity that can be directly used by the vehicle, and realize the purpose of improving the vehicle performance while reducing the energy consumption. In order to realize that purpose, a dynamic model of vehicle vertical 7-DOF active suspension is established in this paper. Based on optimal control theory, a load adjustable reclaiming energy suspension controller is designed. The relevant parameters of suspension are optimized by particle…

State of The Art E-coating with high precision physics involved

ESS Engineering Software Steyr GmbH-Hui Cao, Martin Schifko, Xinghua Song, Ernesto Monaco, Ravi Kanth Borra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0188
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Increase the prediction quality of thickness in micron deposition during e-coating. In this process there exist many influences, which change the deposition behaviour. Some of them having a higher impact on the results and some others a smaller one. A brief description of the process reads like: The total voltage on all anodes are defining the total electric potential which get distributed on the car body. The variable electric resistance of the car body materials defines the electric field on the car body. Diffusion bring paint particles of the fluid onto the car bodies surface. The electrolyses is finally depositing the paint particles to the surface. The electric resistance is changing and the electric field changes. This leads to the so called “wrap-around” effect allowing electricity passing faraday effects successfully. Low voltage leads into cavities and deposition is starting there too. In this session we will discuss some key influences needed to be considered and ongoing research with ESS to increase the prediction quality of the deposition simulation. The paper will discuss an easy way…

Assessment through Numerical Simulation of the Impact of a 48 V Electric Supercharger on Performance and CO2 Emissions of a Gasoline Passenger Car

Politecnico di Torino-Alessandro Zanelli, Federico Millo
Röchling Automotive-Marco Barbolini, Luca Neri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1284
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The demanding CO2 emission targets are fostering the development of downsized, turbocharged and electrified engines. In this context, the need for high boost level at low engine speed requires the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. At the same time, the increased electrification level of the vehicles enables the usage of electrified boosting systems aiming to exploit the opportunities of high levels of electric power and energy available on-board. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of a 48V electric supercharger (eSC) on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transient manoeuvers. The virtual test rig employed for the analysis integrates a 1D CFD fast running engine model representative of a 1.5L state-of-the-art gasoline engine featuring an eSC upstream of the main turbocharger, a dual voltage electric network (12V + 48V), a six speed manual transmission and a vehicle representative of a B-SUV segment car. The evaluation tests chosen for the case study were, on the one hand, vehicle elasticity manoeuvers for the performance assessment and, on the…

The Review of Present and Future Energy Structure in China

Tsinghua University-Feiqi Liu, Fuquan Zhao, Han Hao, Zongwei Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0612
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Both the economy and energy demand increase rapidly in China. The government is facing severe problems from energy security, carbon emissions and environmental issues. The past trends and future plans of energy will have great influence on the transportation, construction and industry development. This paper summarizes the present and future energy structure in China. Conventional fossil energy, nuclear energy and renewable energy are all included. Electricity will account for more proportion in total energy consumption in the future, and the structure of electricity will be cleaner. That will promote the development of electric vehicles and the transformation of China's automotive industry. The optimization of energy structure will accelerate the low-carbon development in China. China's energy development will enter a new stage from the expansion of total quantity to the upgrading of quality and efficiency. In order to realize the Paris Climate Agreement, China must steadily control the total energy consumption. The energy consumption in China will be in a period of slow growth. Constantly optimizing the energy structure and promoting renewable energy will both ease…

A development of the model based torque feedback control with disturbance observer for electric power steering system

Hyundai Motor Company-Deukpyo Lee, Yun Gab Lo, Minwoo Han, Kyuwon Kim, Chulhee Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1233
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Electric Power Steering (EPS) control algorithm needs to meet both functional requirements and stability, because a driver interacts with the vehicle using steering system. First, it should make natural steering feeling. Second, it should ensure stability against deterioration of hardware. In order to meet these requirements, conventional control algorithms are designed with a stabilizing compensator and an assist torque map which is a one-to-one map between driver torque and assist motor torque. However, It is hard to tune parameters for satisfy both steering feel and stability because these things interact with each other. So, this paper supposes a torque feedback control algorithm to get independence between steering feel and stability. This paper presents a torque feedback control algorithm to improve steering feel and robustness against deterioration of hardware for EPS system. The proposed control algorithm consists of two main components : target torque generator, target torque tracking controller. To make natural steering feel, the steering feel should reflect information about the vehicle condition. So, the proposed control algorithm estimate the rack force which has information…